Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan

Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan
Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan

Lub keeb kwm backdrop ntawm Afghanistan, (Persian: Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan , Tarikh e Afghanistan, Pashto: Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan , Da Afġānistān Tārīkh) raws li ib tug lub xeev pib nyob rau hauv 1747 nrog nws lub hauv paus los ntawm Ahmad Shah Durrani. Cov muaj li sau keeb kwm ntawm lub teb chaws los ntawm thiab los muaj Afghanistan yuav tsum tau ua raws rov qab mus rau nyob ib ncig ntawm 500 U.Nt.Y. thaum lub cheeb tsam yog nyob rau hauv lub Achaemenid faj tim teb chaws, nyob rau hauv kev phem ntawm lub fact tias cov ntawv pov thawj qha hais tias ib tug propelled theem ntawm urbanized kab lis kev cai tau muaj nyob rau hauv lub teb chaws txij thaum qhov chaw nyob rau hauv lub chav 3000 thiab 2000 ECB. Bactria mus rov qab mus rau 2500 BC. Lub Indus Valley Civilization ncua mus txog enormous daim Afghanistan nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb. Alexander lub Great thiab nws Makadaunias armed forces kov puag yog dab tsi tam sim no Afghanistan nyob rau hauv 330 U.Nt.Y. tom ntej rau vanquishing Persia thaum lub sij hawm sib ntaus sib tua ntawm Gaugamela. Los ntawm tus taw tes rau pem hauv ntej, heev heev realms tau nce mus ntawm Afghanistan, nrog rau cov Greco-Bactrians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Hindu Shahi, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Khljis, Timurids, mughals, Hotakis, thiab Durranis.

Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan
Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan

Vim hais tias ntawm nws cheeb tsam, Afghanistan tau ib qhov chaw ntawm differing societies, inciting ib tus menyuam kawm ntawv ntawm keeb kwm mus rau npe rau nws lub 'indirect ntawm lub qub ntiaj teb no'. Cov neeg uas hais incorporated cov Pawxia, nyob rau hauv Dali-a lub Great (522-486 ECB); thiab cov Greeks, tsav los ntawm Alexander lub Great (356-323 ECB). Muaj ntau tam sim no-hnub txoj yog raws li nyob rau hauv Greek lag. Tug hauj kev kawm thrived los ntawm lub caij thawj ib puas xyoo TQY, nws lords reigning nyob rau hauv Bamiyan kom txog thaum lub finish ntawm lub thib kaum rau caug xyoo. Ib tug as ua phem rau Kandahar nyob rau hauv 699-700 coj Islam, siv tam li lub Turks khaws hwj chim nyob rau hauv Iran, Afghanistan, thiab Is Nrias teb. Lub Mongolian Genghis Khan rov nyob rau hauv lub thib kaum peb xyoo pua. Rau cov nram qab no ob peb puas xyoo, Afghanistan tau ua rog txog los ntawm txawv Indian thiab Persian thawj. Thaum kawg, nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua, ib tug ua ke ntawm Pashtun tsab xeem lis nyob rau hauv Durrani (tsis paub li Ahmad Shah Abdali) vanquished lub Moghuls thiab cov Pawxia thiab merged nws tus kheej enormous tsis tau thawv sau.

The Great Game

Thaum lub sij hawm puas tawm xyoo dhau, Afghanistan twb ua los rau cov yug dua lub sij hawm nyob rau hauv lub Anglo-Lavxias teb sab hwj chim sib ntaus sib tua lub npe hu ua 'Cov kev ua si'. Hais sim coj Afghanistan nyob rau hauv tib lub ntsiab cai, tsis tau nyiaj dhau los resonating kev puas tsuaj nyob rau hauv lub Thawj Anglo-Afghan ua tsov ua rog (1839-42). Lub zoo kawg li hwj chim sim dua nyob rau hauv 1878-80; lub sij hawm no Afghanistan poob ib tug ntau npaum li cas cheeb tsam thiab kev tswj ntawm nws sab nraum tej teeb meem rau teb chaws Aas Kiv. Yuav kom Russia nyob rau hauv kev tswj thiab xyuas kom meej nws Indian xeev, Teb chaws Aas Kiv muab tam sim no-hnub riam phom thiab ib tug txhua xyoo sponsorship rau Afghanistan lub rulers. Ib tug ntawm cov yog Abdur Rahman Khan (1881-1901), lub npe hu ua cov 'Hlau Amir’ thiab 'Unification ntawm Afghanistan'. Nws ua ib tug zoo kawg armed quab yuam. Nyob rau hauv 1893 lub Durand kab tas qhov fringe nrog British Is Nrias teb, tsis tau innate cheeb tsam yog ib feem, tawm hauv ib nrab nyob rau hauv dab tsi yog tam sim no Pakistan. Nyob rau ntawm nws demise nyob rau hauv 1901, Abdur Rahman Khan twb prevailing los ntawm nws tus me nyuam, Habibullah.

Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan

Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan

nrug maneuvers

Habibullah yog ib tug liberalizer uas hais ib tug txiav ntug style ntawm cov kev kawm. Tom qab lub ntiaj teb no ua tsov ua rog ib, hnyav heev tau raug mounting rau tag nrho cov autonomy. Ib tug ob peb cov ntaub ntawv raug propelled los ntawm lub Afghan scholarly Mahmud Tarzi. Nyob rau hauv lub wake ntawm King Habibullah raug tua nyob rau hauv 1919, nws tus me nyuam Amanullah nyob rau hauv txoj hauj lwm ntawm txoj cai thiab hais tias txoj kev ywj pheej. Hais tau vanquished nyob rau hauv ib tug thib peb Anglo-Afghan rog nyob rau hauv 1919-21 thiab Afghanistan zoo tu qab tso hais kom tshaj nws cov sab nraum undertakings. Amanullah ('Cov kev hloov tswv') embraced av hloov, regularized nqi, broadened kev cob qhia thiab muab lub teb chaws nws cov thawj cov kevcai tswj. tsis tau, nws endeavors yuav tawm mus tswj deb ntawm lub zos cov laus thiab cov kev cai dab qhuas hauv paus sim hawm caij nyoog tawm tsam thiab nws twb toppled nyob rau hauv 1938. Ib tug Tajik hu ua Bacha-Yi-Saqao nyob rau kev tswj, Txawm li cas los, twb ua ntej ntev tshem tawm thiab tua los ntawm ib tug Pashtun, Nadir Khan - uas pib ib txoj kab uas yog mus rau kom txog thaum 1978.

Tus Tshiab cai ywj pheej

Nadir Khan (tsis paub li Nadir Shah, Shah signifying 'tus tswv') tso cai lub teb chaws tus thawj coj ntau noteworthy self-txoj cai. Raug tua los ntawm ib tug understudy nyob rau hauv 1933, nws twb yeej los ntawm nws 19-xyoo-laus tus me nyuam Mohamed (Zahir Shah). Rau ob xyoo lawm Zahir Shah tau raug los ntawm nws ob tug txiv ntxawm, uas twb hnyav Prime Ministers. Lub tom ntej tus txiv ntxawm qhia ib tug 'mas parliament’ uas zaum ntawm 1949 kom txog rau thaum 1952 thaum Zahir Shah tus nkauj muam nraug nus, Daoud, nyob rau kev tswj raws li Prime Minister thiab nyob rau hauv 1955 tau mus rau lub Soviet Union rau ib tug tub rog qhia. Nyob rau hauv 1963 Zahir Shah sim los txoos ua ib tug muaj kev tiv thaiv tsoom fwv nyob rau hauv lub 'Tshiab cai ywj pheej’ uas khaws cia mus los ntawm 1964 rau 1973. Thaum lub sij hawm lub sij hawm no kawm cov neeg zoo siab nyob rau hauv ntau noteworthy txuj; tej pib mus rau hauv lub chaw ua hauj lwm thiab tsoom fwv cov. Zahir Shah xaiv los qhia ib tug hnyav neeg sawv cev hom tsoom fwv, tsis tau enactment uas muaj cov ideological pawg yeej tsis tau cim.

Hunger for change

Nyob rau hauv 1973 Vaj Ntxwv cov nkauj muam nraug nus, Daoud, txheej txheem ib qho overthrow, hais tias Afghanistan ib tug koom pheej thiab nws tus kheej Thawj Tswj Hwm. Txias Tsov rog sib npaug, lub USSR thiab lub US, emptied pab mus rau hauv lub teb chaws ($2.52 billion thiab $533 lab nyias qhov chaw nyob rau hauv lub chav 1955 thiab 1978). Thaum lub sij hawm Daoud lub luv luv yeej lub teb chaws profited los ntawm roj thiab cov nkev khwv tau nyiaj. Muaj ntau cov kev hloov. Tej’ txoj cai tau tseeb los ntawm Daoud. Kabul twb presently loaded nrog understudies thiab nws cov tsev kawm ntawv yog ib tug hotbed ntawm nom tswv txoj kev ntseeg system - ob qho tag nrho Communist thiab Islamic. Tej thiab cov txiv neej los ua ke thiab tuaj mus rau hauv kev sib cuag nrog sab nraum ntawv. Lawv ravenous txog cov kev hloov.

Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan
Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan

Communism - Afghan-style

Nyob rau 27 Plaub Hlis Ntuj 1978 Daoud twb ousted thiab tua nyob rau hauv ib tug socialist chim (tus ntxhiab kiv puag ncig) tsav los ntawm Afghanistan tus neeg txoj kev ywj tog (PDPA). Hauv lub clash ua ntej ntev phua lub sib sau ua ke. Cov neeg phais nias ntawm ib pab pawg neeg - Parcham ('Pennant') - tau ousted thaum lub lwm yam pab pawg neeg, lub Khalq ('Feem ntau'), taws los ntawm Noor Mohammed Taraki, coj tswj. Qhov kawg ntaus Islam, coj los ntawm kev tshaj tawm thiab zoo siab nyob rau hauv qhov chaw cia zoo-paub pab. Radical hloov pib nyob ze uprisings thiab armed forces revolts; troops deserted rau txheem gatherings. Lub USSR txhab rau daim ntawv qhia rau Taraki lub system; lub US, ces, zoo bolstered rhuav txhua gatherings. Txawm tias muaj tseeb hais tias txhawb los ntawm lub soviets mus kho nws disliked npaj, lub Taraki system tsis tau. Es lub US yuav siv mounting tumult, USSR Thawj Tswj Hwm Breshnev xa mus rau hauv pab tub rog nyob rau hauv lub Kaum Ob Hlis 1979. Nws cia siab Soviet troops yuav feem ntau yuav pullback nram qab no ib tug ib nrab xyoo.

The USSR’s Vietnam

Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan
Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan

Nyob rau hauv lub meantime, Taraki twb ousted thiab purportedly choked, los ntawm sib sau ua ke rival Hafizullah Amin, uas thusly raug tua los ntawm Soviet troops nkag mus rau nws muaj koob muaj npe chaw nyob. Lub Russians tswvcuab raws li pioneer Babrak Kamal, thawj coj ntawm lub Parcham pab pawg neeg, uas muab nyob ib ncig ntawm Taraki lub feem ntau disliked tswv yim thiab tshaj tawm rau siab rau Islam. Yuav hais tias ua nws yuav, yua ntawm tej thaj chaw deb troops on Afghan av twb cia li pib ib lub teb chaws uprising. Soviet powers reacted los ntawm decimating horticulture thiab tsiaj mus rau suam tawm kev cai rau cov rhuav txhua. Lavxias teb sab besieging ntawm zos guaranteed yuav luag ib lab Afghan lub neej. Lub KGB-tsim tsis tub ceev xwm kis dread nyob rau hauv nroog aav. Soviet ib pab tub rog tus xov tooj tiav 120,000, tsis tau nyob rau tib lub sij hawm lub txhaws tsim - thiab qhov txhab los thoob ntiaj teb. Thaub qab tuaj los ntawm txoj kev Mujahidin gatherings banished nyob rau hauv Pakistan uas tau txais rau lub feem ntau ib feem los ntawm US, Saudi Arabia, thiab Tuam Tshoj. Lub US daws los ua Afghanistan lub Lavxias teb sab 'Vietnam', nchuav nyob rau hauv cov nyiaj ntsuab thiab riam phom mus rau sab caj npab lub kuj los ntawm lub Pakistani tsis paub administrations lub npe hu ua lub ISI. Tus thawj coj ntseeg feem ntau US pab yog Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, paub rau cov CIA rau nws 'extremist’ thiab 'phem phem’ xav. Intelligent neeg, tshwj xeeb, tau teem rau nws tua neeg Crusades. Siab phem rau socialist pab ntxiv originated los ntawm teb chaws Aas Kiv thiab Pakistan. Los ntawm lub caij 1980s, phau ntawv no los ntawm lub US thiab Saudi Arabia ncav us txog nyob ib ncig ntawm $1 billion txhua txhua xyoo; thaum qhov chaw nyob rau hauv lub chav 1986 thiab 1990 nyob ib ncig ntawm $5 billion nqi ntawm riam phom mus rau lub 'saum ntuj ceeb tsheej warriors’ ntawm lub Afghan Mujahidin.

Soviet ntsoos ntsoos

Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan
Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan

Cov hauj lwm tas nyob rau hauv tej kev tshwm sim 14,000 Lavxias teb sab lub neej thiab twb costing lub USSR ntau tshaj $5 billion txhua txhua xyoo. Tshiab Thawj Tswj Hwm Mikhail Gorbachev txheej txheem mus rub rov qab, sim tso tseg ib tug 'cordial’ tsoom fwv nyob rau hauv Afghanistan. Dr. Najibullah, thawj coj ntawm lub Afghan txawj ntse Service, twb qhia raws li Thawj Tswj Hwm. Qhov kawg Soviet troops tau rho rov qab nyob rau hauv Lub ob hlis ntuj 1989; SUPERVISION tau sab laug 1.5 lab Afghans tuag, 5,000,000 debilitated, thiab 5,000,000 uas poob cev qhev. Lub Mujahidin tau cov kev xaiv mus ntes lossis loj daim Afghanistan, tswv yim sib ntaus sib tua tiv thaiv cov Lavxias teb sab manikin, Najibullah. Nyob rau hauv lub Plaub Hlis 1992 lawv coj Kabul thiab tshaj tawm ib Islamic lub xeev. Burhanuddin Rabbani raug xaiv Thawj Tswj Hwm, Txawm li cas los, lub Mujahidin victors yog ib tug ntev txoj kev los ntawm koom ua ke thiab ib tug unpleasant hwj chim sib ntaus sib tua ua.

battling warlords

Neeg khiav dej num Abdul Rashid Dostum thiab Ahmad Shah Massoud nkag mus hauv Kabul dab ib tug takeover ntawm lub nroog los ntawm tus nrog sib ntaus warlord Gulbuddin Hekmatyar thiab nws cov neeg koom tes. Plaub thawj gatherings, txhua yam uas lawv tus kheej heev sab nraum tswj, battled kev tswj ntawm Kabul. Nyob rau hauv lub yim hli ntuj 1992 lub UN qhia hais tias nyob rau hauv excess ntawm 1,800 kev cov neeg tau raug tua thiab 500,000 tau escaping lub nroog. Ua ntej lub finish ntawm 1992, Kabul tau crushed ua tsaug rau cov dej num ntawm sib xeem warlords; 5,000 cov neeg tau kis rau thiab nyob ib ncig ntawm ib lab tau uprooted. Phem tau pom zoo los ntawm feem ntau factional tho. Txawv nroog zej zog nyiaj dhau los comparative destinies. los ntawm 1994 thaum twg tus nqi 20,000 tau ncaws lub thoob - thiab tseem, cov pioneer ntawm lub warring pawg yuav tsis tau raws li. Tam sim no lwm hwj chim tsom.

Sau cov Taliban

Ib me ntsis sib sau ua ke ntawm kev cai dab qhuas understudies (los yog Taliban) nyob ze Kandahar mas tus cwj pwm ntawm cov thawj coj tswj lub cheeb tsam. Nrog kev pab los ntawm cheebtsam hauv Pakistan, lawv propelled ib tug tub rog kev sawv ntxeev hais tias mus ua ib tug Islamic lub xeev nyob rau exacting Sharia txoj cai. Lub hom nroog lawv coj yog Kandahar, tsev ntawm lawv pioneer Mullah Mohammed Omar, nyob rau hauv Kaum ib hlis 1994. Lawv tau ntsib me ntsis rhuav txhua los ntawm tsov rog-sab sab pej xeem: lub Taliban yuam kev thov, sib sau riam phom, dua down checkpoints rau yuam nyiaj ntsuab thiab yuav tsis txais ntsiag nyiaj. Lawv adaptation ntawm Islam yog unforgiving, outrageous thiab overbearing. Qhia nroog-xauj, tshwj xeeb tej, tau feem ntau heev phem phem los. inevitably, lub Taliban ua coalitions kev nplij siab thiab progressively depended rau sab nraum warriors; torment, killings thiab lwm yam tib neeg txoj cai kev cuam tshuam xa tiv thaiv kev folks ntxiv dag zog rau.

Pakistani thiab Saudi pab

Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan
Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan

Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan

Ib tug yuav tsum 100,000 Pakistanis npaj thiab ua rog ze los ntawm cov Taliban nyob rau hauv Afghanistan los ntawm 1994-2001. Saudi Arabia muab cuab tam, khoom muag, thiab discretionary pab. Osama canister Laden, ib tug zoo tawm Saudi uas thaum lub sij hawm lub Soviet txoj hauj lwm tau txais thiab npaj as Mujahidin initiates, reestablished nws pab, los rov qab mus rau Afghanistan nyob rau hauv 1996. los ntawm 2000 lub Taliban tswj 90 feem pua ​​ntawm cov Afghan sau, Txawm li cas los, lawv cia li kev lig kev cai dab tsi los ntawm Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, thiab lub UAE. Relations nrog lub US tshwj xeeb yog hem. Lub US blamed cov Taliban rau cooj Osama canister Laden, ib tug txuam txoj kev npaj nrog lub 1998 foob ​​pob assaults rau US thoob ntiaj teb chaw zoo nyob rau hauv Nairobi thiab Dar-es-Salaam. Qhov no, koom nrog ntiaj teb no worry txog lub extraordinary mistreatment ntawm tej, thiab lub teb chaws opium poppy creation, provoked ob rounds ntawm UN txim.

9/11 thiab 'Kev Txom Nyem txoj kev ywj pheej

Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan

Nco ntsoov hais tias Osama canister Laden yog qab lub 11 Cuaj hlis 2001 assaults, lub US thov lub Taliban tes nws tshaj hais US vaj huam sib luag. Taliban pioneer Mullah Mohammed Omar yuav tsis thiab nyob rau 27 Lub kaum hli ntuj 2001 lub US, kev txhawb los ntawm teb chaws Aas Kiv, propelled 'ua hauj lwm yuav nyiaj mus dhau txoj kev ywj pheej'. Nyob rau hauv excess ntawm 12,000 bombs twb poob nyob rau hauv ib nrab xwb ib lub hlis. Battling rau hauv av raug qhia los ntawm cov Afghan Northern Alliance powers nrog kev pab los ntawm Coalition Tshwj xeeb Rog. Nyob rau 13 Kaum ib hlis lub Taliban tshuav Kabul thiab sab qaum teb Alliance strolled mus rau hauv lub nroog. Nyob rau 16 Hlis ntuj nqeg US Secretary of State Colin Powell tshaj tawm: 'Peb tau obliterated al-Qaeda nyob rau hauv Afghanistan thiab peb tau ua tiav txoj hauj lwm ntawm Afghanistan raws li ib tug chaw nyob rau puas siab puas ntsws nyaum zog.’ Al-Qaeda thiab Taliban tho kev khiav hla lub permeable outskirt rau hauv Pakistan, qhov uas lawv muaj kev regroup.

Tej kev coj thiab frailty

Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan
Keeb kwm ntawm Afghanistan

Nyob rau hauv lub Kaum Ob Hlis 2001 sab qaum teb Alliance thiab Cheebtsam kev cob cog rua rau lub yav dhau los tus tswv, Zahir Shah, tau koom nyob rau hauv lub teb chaws Yelemees. Lub sij hawm yog lub Bonn Daim ntawv cog lus - ib tug kev kho ntawm lub kev vam meej pab pawg, uas muaj warlords blameworthy ntawm tua neeg, quab yuam, quab yuam thiab soaring Kabul thaum lub sij hawm lub Kwvyees li xyoo 1990. Ib tug ntawm lub sij hawm kws muaj txuj twb teem. Ib tug Loya Jirga (los yog zoo heev tau ua ke) tau tuaj sib sau nyob rau hauv 2002, taws los Hamid Karzai. Nyob rau hauv 2004 lwm Afghan Constitution twb raug txiav thiab Hamid Karzai raug xaiv, Thawj Tswj Hwm. Parliamentary thiab commonplace haiv neeg twb muaj rau xyoo tom ntej, kis tau ib tug ntau mas raws li ntawm tej’ MPS. Tom qab Lub Xya hli ntuj 2006 lub NATO-tsav International Security Kev Pab Dag Zog Yuam (ISAF) coj li luag hauj lwm hais txog kev ruaj ntseg los ntawm lub US-tsav alliance nyob rau hauv qhov chaw ntawm Afghanistan; battling thiab ntxeev siab assaults escalated thaum lub sij hawm 2007.

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