Keeb kwm ntawm Chad

Keeb kwm ntawm Chad
Keeb kwm ntawm Chad
Keeb kwm ntawm Chad
Keeb kwm ntawm Chad

Lub cheeb tsam ntawm sab hnub tuaj Sahara thiab Sudan los ntawm Fezzan, Bilma, thiab Chad nyob rau hauv lub sab hnub poob mus rau lub Nile hav nyob rau hauv lub sab hnub tuaj twb tshwj xeeb nyob rau hauv Neolithic txheej xwm, raws li sab hom phiaj validate. Nyob rau hauv tag nrho cov ntxim yuav zoo siv, zoo tib yam ntawm cov soonest haiv neeg yog cov npub ntxuav tej yam ntuj tso hollow neeg delineated los ntawm Herodotus li muaj lub teb chaws sab qab teb ntawm Fezzan. Lub ethnographic keeb kwm ntawm lub cheeb tsam yog tias ntsis kev hloov kho ntawm no yooj yim Tshuag los ntawm cov khov kho infiltration ntawm lub nomad thiab dynamically Arabicized dawb African feem, nkag mus rau los ntawm lub sab qaum teb los ntawm txoj kev rau Fezzan thiab Tibesti thiab, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog tom qab lub kaum plaub xyoo pua, los ntawm lub Nile hav los ntawm txoj kev rau Darfur. Raws li qhia los ntawm lus dab neeg, lub teb chaws nyob ib ncig ntawm lub pas dej Chad yog nyob rau ntawm thawj yuav tsum tau los ntawm lub Sao. Qhov no txawm ploj ntais cov neeg no tej zaum yuav nyob niaj hnub no los ntawm cov Kotoko, nyob rau hauv uas nws lub teb chaws, raws tus ntug dej ntawm lub Logone thiab Chari, twb qhia thaum lub sij hawm lub sijhawm xyoo 1950 ib tug medieval kab lis kev cai hnov ​​rau kev ua hauj lwm nyob rau hauv stoneware thiab bronze.

Lub respectably nco thiab politically tam sim no kingdoms ntawm central Sudan yog cov creation ntawm Saharan Imazighen (Berbers), twv southward los ntawm lawv qhov kev taug kev mus rau pasturage thiab ntse npaj rau yuam lawv lub hwj chim rau cov fragmentary hauv paus txawm kev thov ntawm agriculturalists. Qhov no system yog heightened los ntawm lub augmentation ntawm Islam. Muaj qhia ib tug gigantic nyaj ntawm freethinker Imazighen rau hauv central Sudan tam sim ntawd nyob rau hauv lub yim xyoo pua.

Qhov tseem noteworthy ntawm cov xeev, Kanem-Bornu, uas yog nyob rau hauv lub qhov siab ntawm nws muaj peev xwm nyob rau hauv lub tom qab thib kaum rau xyoo pua, tiv nws amazing zoo rau nws qhov kev thov ntawm yav qab teb finish ntawm lub trans-Saharan luam kawm kom Tripoli.

Qhov yuav tshwm ntawm lub Islamized Sudanic kab lis kev cai diffused los ntawm Kanem yog cov kingdoms ntawm Bagirmi thiab Ouaddaï, uas tsim nyob rau hauv thaum ntxov ncua ntev ntawm lub thib kaum xya xyoo pua tawm ntawm tus vib this los ntawm hloov mus rau Islam. Nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua, lub as koom haum ntawm Ouaddaï muaj cov kev xaiv kom poob lub suzerainty ntawm Darfur thiab nthuav nws qhov chaw los ntawm cov kev kovyeej ntawm sab hnub tuaj Kanem. Leejtwg ciav rau cov tsis muaj zog ntawm animist haiv neeg mus rau sab qab teb tswm ib tug noteworthy feem nyob rau hauv lub flourishing ntawm tag nrho cov Muslim lub xeev. Nyob rau hauv lub puas tawm xyoo dhau, nyob rau hauv txhua rooj plaub, lawv twb nyob rau hauv tag nrho cov rot, nraus los ntawm kev tsov kev rog thiab internecine battles. Nyob rau hauv lub xyoo 1883-93 lawv tag nrho cov tumbled mus rau lub Sudanese ntiaj teb-trotter Rābiḥ Az-Zubayr.

Keeb kwm ntawm Chad
Keeb kwm ntawm Chad

Fabkis txoj lub koom haum

Tam sim no lub fragment ntawm teb chaws Africa los ntawm cov European powers twb nkag mus rau nws dhau theem. Rābiḥ twb toppled nyob rau hauv 1900, thiab cov kev Kanembu kev cai twb reestablished nyob rau hauv Fabkis kabke. Chad twb tuaj ua ib tug me ntsis ntawm cov chav kawm ntawv ntawm Fabkis Equatorial Africa nyob rau hauv 1910. Lub assuagement ntawm tag nrho cov cheeb tsam ntawm lub tam sim no koom pheej twb tsis yog qhwv los ntawm 1914, thiab nruab nrab ntawm cov kev tsov kev rog Fabkis txheem yog unprogressive. Ib tug hais sib haum nrog ltalis thiab Fabkis uas yuav tau muab lub Aozou Sawb mus rau Italian-kav Libya yeej tsis tau pom zoo los ntawm qhov Fabkis National Assembly, tsis tau nws muab ib tsos rau Libya rau Clutch lub cheeb tsam nyob rau hauv 1973. Thaum lub sij hawm ua tsov ua rog II lub ntiaj teb no Chad muab unhesitating pab rau lub Free Fabkis yog vim li cas. Tom qab 1945 lub cheeb tsam tsev kawm qhia nyob rau hauv lub fij advancement ntawm Fabkis Equatorial Africa. Nyob rau hauv 1946 nws hloov mus rau hauv ib tug txawv teb chaws chaw ntawm cov koom pheej Fabkis.

Keeb kwm ntawm Chad
Keeb kwm ntawm Chad

Opportunity

Ib tug gigantic raws li ntawm nws tus kheej-thawj coj twb muab nyob rau hauv lub built-up kev cai lij choj ntawm 1957 thaum siv lub xeev tsoom fwv twb tawm tsis tau los ntawm Khali-ees Lisette, ib tug West Indian uas tau hloov mus ua cov tho kev ntawm lub Chad Progressive tog (ppt). Ib tug neeg sab nraud koom pheej hauv lub Fabkis Community twb hais rau Kaum ib hlis 1958, thiab ua kom tiav kev ywj pheej nyob rau hauv lub remade system twb cultivated nyob rau hauv Aug. 11, 1960. Lub teb chaws zoo twb tsis khuvxim los ntawm tes taw hnyav li ntawm tus dim thiab li qhia siv kuj Christian haiv neeg ntawm cov monetarily haib southwest thiab hauj sim, Muslim, nonblack kws muaj txuj ntawm cov laus crude xeev ntawm lub sab qaum teb, thiab nws cov teeb meem kuj jumbled los ntawm Libyan incorporation.

Lisette twb ousted los ntawm ib tug accomplice progressively tsim nyog mus rau ib feem ntawm cov kev txwv, N'Garta (François) Tombalbaye, ib tug yav qab teb tus tub ua zog lub koom txoos taub hau, uas hloov mus rau hauv qhov tseem ceeb thawj ntawm lub koom pheej. Nyob rau hauv lub peb hlis ntuj 1961 Tombalbaye tiav ib tug muab ntawm lub ppt nrog tus tseem ceeb dab tsi thaiv, lub teb chaws African tog (PNA), shape lwm Union rau lub Progress ntawm Chad. Ib tug liam kev koom tes los ntawm cov Muslim qhov chaw, cuaj kaum, tsav tsheb nyob rau hauv 1963 mus rau lub crumbling ntawm lub National Assembly, ib tug succinct profoundly touchy teeb meem, thiab cov mos ntawm lub hauv paus ntsiab lus nom tswv ua ntej nrog rau lub PNA. Cia li tsoom fwv tus neeg sib tw yeej khiav nyob rau hauv lub tshiab haiv neeg nyob rau hauv lub Kaum Ob Hlis 1963, qhia ib tug-tog lub xeev.

Basic tsov rog

Keeb kwm ntawm Chad
Keeb kwm ntawm Chad

Nyob rau hauv nruab nrab-1960s ob guerrilla txhim kho sawv. Hauv rau lub National Liberation ntawm Chad (Frolinat) twb teem nyob rau hauv 1966 thiab ua hauj lwm yeej nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb ntawm nws puag camp nyob rau yav qab teb Libyan suab puam tsev cog khoom ntawm Al-Kufrah, thaum lub sij hawm tinier Chad National Pem hauv ntej (FNT) ua hauj lwm nyob rau hauv lub sab hnub tuaj-central chaw. Lub ob social txheej xwm mus rau lub toppling rau tam sim no tsoom fwv, txo ntawm Fabkis cov nyhuv hauv Chad, thiab los ze zog muaj kev koom nrog cov Arab xeev ntawm North Africa. Overpowering pib tshwm sim nyob rau hauv 1969 thiab 1970, thiab Fabkis cov tub rog rog tau pom lub sij hawm los mus them rau cov uprisings.

Ua ntej ua tiav ntawm cov xyoo 1970, qhov yooj yim tsov rog twb tuaj ua tsawg ib tug tsis sib haum ntawm Chad lub Muslim sab qaum teb cheeb tsam thiab lub npub yav qab teb cheeb tsam raws li ib tug sib ntaus ntawm sab qaum teb kev nom kev tswv gatherings. Libyan troops tau tau ntawm Pres. Goukouni Oueddei tus thov nyob rau hauv lub Kaum Ob Hlis 1980 thiab tau rho rov qab, dua nyob rau ntawm nws kev muag khoom, nyob rau hauv Kaum ib hlis 1981. Nyob rau hauv ib tug mus txoj kev txhim kho lub Armed Forces ntawm lub North (Kiv cua) ntawm Hissène Habré, uas tau rho rov qab mus rau hauv Sudan nyob rau hauv Lub Kaum Ob Hlis 1980, reoccupied tag nrho cov noteworthy zos nyob rau hauv sab hnub tuaj Chad nyob rau hauv Kaum ib hlis 1981. Peacekeeping rog ntawm lub koom haum ntawm African kev sib sau (los ntawm thiab los ntawm cov African Union) rub nyob rau hauv 1982, thiab Habré ua voj voog ncig lwm lub koom haum nyob rau hauv Lub kaum hli ntuj ntawm xyoo ntawd. Nyob rau tib lub sij hawm, ib tug tsawg tsoom fwv nyob rau hauv cov kev ua ntawm Goukouni twb teem, nrog Libyan tub rog kev pab, ntawm Bardaï nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb. Nyob rau hauv lub wake ntawm overpowering ua combating nyob rau hauv ntug no xyoo 1983-84 Habré tus Kiv cua Yeej, upheld los ntawm Fabkis pab tub rog. Fabkis rub rov qab nws pab tub rog nyob rau hauv 1984 tsis tau Libya yuav tsis ua raws li. Libya impelled intrusions progressively tseem ceeb mus rau hauv Chad nyob rau hauv 1986, thiab lawv tau muab rov qab los ntawm tsoom fwv powers nrog kev pab los ntawm Fabkis thiab lub tebchaws United States.

Nyob rau hauv nruab nrab-1987 Habré rog zoo tu qab tso qhov chaw nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb Chad uas tau nyob rau hauv Libyan tswj thiab rau ib tug loj ib feem ntawm ib lub hlis reoccupied Amazon. Txoj cai thaum no cov suab puam caij nplooj ntoos hlav twb retaken los ntawm Muammar al-Qaddafi lub Libyan rog, Habré rog rov qab los ntawm taus Maaten es Sarra, uas yog zoo hauv Libya. Ib tug ntawv sib yeem lus twb nrhiav nyob rau hauv lub Cuaj Hli Ntuj 1987.

Tswv yim nrog nriaj

Habré khaws cia rau confronting piam sij tau rau nws system. Nyob rau hauv lub Plaub Hlis 1989 lub hauv ib tug xibhwb, Brahim Mahamat Itno, thiab ob tug tseem ceeb ua tub rog ntawm cov, Hassan Djamouss, thiab Idriss Déby, tau txuam nrog plotting mus topple Habré. Nws twb ntes thiab Djamouss raug tua, tsis tau Déby tau txais tam sim ntawd thiab pib tshiab assaults ib xyoos tom qab. By lig 1990 nws Movement rau Chadian National Salvation powers tau ntes tau Abéché, thiab Habré khiav lub teb chaws. Déby thiab nws powers ntawm tus taw tes coj N'Djamena, lub peev. Déby tshem tawm cov kevcai tswj thiab framed lwm nom tswv nrog nws tus kheej raws li tus thawj tswj hwm. Txawm hais tias nws twb lees paub rau cov uas nws tau pom tej caj npab los ntawm Libya, nws tsis kam muab cov Libyan lub koom haum thiab guaranteed yuav teev ib tug multiparty feem ntau txoj cai system nyob rau hauv Chad.

Déby tus takeover ntawm lub koom haum saib xyuas yog tsis yog tsis muaj dab tsi thaiv. Nyob rau hauv 1991 thiab 1992 muaj ib tug ob peb assaults thiab overthrow endeavors los ntawm kev txwv powers, ib tug loj tus naj npawb ntawm cov neeg uas tau raws li tau hlua li nrog Habré, Txawm li cas los, Déby khaws cia li nws puas nkag rau hauv lub koom haum nom tswv thiab lub teb chaws. Ib tug teb chaws lub rooj sib tham muaj nyob rau hauv 1993 teem ib txoj tsoom fwv, thiab Déby twb authoritatively muab, interim tus thawj tswj hwm. Nyob rau hauv 1996 lwm cov kevcai tswj tau pom zoo thiab Déby raug xaiv tus thawj tswj hwm nyob rau hauv thawj multiparty thawj tswj haiv neeg nyob rau hauv Chad keeb kwm. Sib raug zoo yog raws li tau me, nyob rau hauv txhua rooj plaub, thiab nyob engagements nrog tsis kam gatherings tsim rau hauv tag nrho cov insubordination nyob rau hauv lig 1998 Thaum lub zog rau kev cai ywj pheej thiab kev ncaj ncees nyob rau hauv Chad (MDJT) pib ib tug hostile nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb daim ntawm cov teb chaws. Lwm yam kuj bunches tom qab koom nrog lub MDJT, thiab lub tawv ncauj proceeded mus rau hauv lub xyoo pua 21st.

Nyob rau hauv 2001 Déby twb reelected amid nqi ntawm extortion los ntawm nws tej yeeb ncuab; yuav hais tias ua nws yuav, ntiaj teb no rov pom Laxalau dua cai lub discretionary cov txheej txheem mus rau ib tug twg zoo rau yuav tsim nyog. Nyob rau hauv lub nruab nrab, Déby lub koom haum saib xyuas tau tag nrho cov thaum adapting rau tseem ceeb agitator offensives kom txog rau thaum kev sib raug zoo pom zoo nyob rau hauv 2002 thiab 2003 tas ib feem coob ntawm cov battling rau ib tug ob peb xyoos. Ib yam li ntawd nyob rau hauv 2003, ntev stretches ntawm npaj thiab kev loj hlob ua hauj lwm tawm raws li tau npaj thaum Chad muab rau hauv ib cov roj-xa lub teb chaws; lub nyiaj los ntawm uas endeavor yuav hloov lub teb chaws nyiaj txiag teeb meem.

Nyob rau hauv kev phem ntawm lub fantasy ntawm advancement Déby lub koom haum nom tswv ua los ntawm advancing kev sib raug zoo thiab ua ib tug qhib qhov rooj rau monetary flourishing, muaj twb yog qhov tseeb ntawm ib tug degenerate thiab oppressive system. Déby thiab nws lub koom haum twb paub rau mercilessly quelling tus tibneeg cov cai thiab cov txuj, nrog Chadian kev ruaj ntseg powers feem ntau xa txoj tib neeg txoj cai manhandles. Lub koom haum tau ntxiv plagued nrog neeg pab leg ntaubntawv ntawm debasement. Muaj ntxiv chim endeavors, incorporating cov nyob rau hauv 2004 thiab 2006. Radical offensives zoo li no txuas ntxiv mus, feem ntau heev nyob rau hauv 2006, ua ntej Déby lub re-lub sij hawm mus rau lub thib peb lub sij hawm raws li tus thawj tswj hwm, thiab nyob rau hauv 2008, thaum dissidents tiav N'Djamena ua ntej thau; heev heev Chadians tau dislodged los ntawm cov battling. Lub guarantee ntawm ntsig txog thriving ntxiv dispersed; txawm tias muaj yog ib co tseem ceeb lub moj khaum extends, Déby lub koom haum ciali mus siv ib tug tseem ceeb ib feem ntawm cov nyiaj tau los los ntawm cov roj ua lag ua luam rau riam phom mus sib ntaus sib tua ntxeev siab offensives xwb tsis yog ua pab tiag tiag tsim nyog kev sib raug zoo thiab nyiaj txiag tej yaam num thiab nce qib nyob rau hauv lub teb chaws.

Ib tug ob peb dissident tho kev uas txuam nrog rau 2008 agitator hostile tau sim nyob rau hauv absentia nyob rau hauv lub yim hli ntuj ntawm xyoo ntawd, raws li yog yav dhau los tus thawj tswj hwm Habré, uas twb txuam nrog tswj revolutionary zog nyob rau hauv Chad thaum kuv nyob hauv ib lub xeev ntawm banishment nyob rau hauv Senegal. Habré thiab cov agitator lub hau nyob sab tsim kom tsum muab ntawm endeavouring yuav oust Déby lub koom haum saib xyuas thiab raug txim tuag. Habré ntxiv hais txog nrog indictments nyob rau hauv Senegal txog politically ntxias killings thiab demonstrations ntawm torment supposedly nplooj siab thaum lub sij hawm nws txheem nyob rau hauv Chad. Senegal sought tom qab cov nqi nyob rau hauv txoj kab nrog cov neeg Asmeskas Union (RAU), Txawm li cas los, Senegalese tub ceev xwm mus txog xyoo wavering ntawm seb lawv yuav tsum muab tso rau Habré rau yam ua ntej. Cov teeb meem mus txog ib tug tseem ceeb heev rau theem nyob rau 2012 thaum lub International Court of Justice txiav txim siab hais tias Senegal yuav tsum tau mus foob Habré los yog tshem tawm nws. Senegal ntawm tus taw tes kos npe tso cai rau ib tug AU npaj siab yuav mus tsim tau ib tug tshwj xeeb tsev hais plaub nyob rau hauv Dakar mus sim Habré. Nws twb puas tau raug ntes nyob rau hauv Lub rau hli ntuj 30, 2013, thiab tom qab ob hnub tsom nyob rau hauv lub khov kho ntsia ntawm lub cim lub tsev hais plaub, uas nws tau officially liam muaj perpetrated ua txhaum tiv thaiv tib neeg, atrocities, thiab tsim txom thaum lub sij hawm lub yim xyoo nws coj Chad. Nws ua ntej pib nyob rau hauv Lub Xya hli ntuj 2015. On May 30, 2016, Habré twb indicted rau nej tau nqa tawm ua yuam kev tiv thaiv tib neeg thaum lub sij hawm nws lub sij hawm raws li tus thawj coj ntawm Chad thiab raug txim mus rau lub neej nyob rau hauv lub tsev kaw neeg.

Notwithstanding rau hauv clashes, mus rau qhov pib ntawm lub xyoo pua 21st, Chad muaj teeb meem nrog nws fringe nrog nyob sib ze haiv neeg Niger, lub Central African koom pheej, thiab feem ntau prominently Sudan. Nyob rau hauv nruab nrab-2003 battling nyob rau hauv lub Darfur cheeb tsam ntawm thaj Sudan xa ib tug lossis loj tus naj npawb ntawm Sudanese escaping los Chad; los ntawm nruab nrab-2005 nws tau soj ntsuam hais tias muaj qhov chaw nyob rau hauv lub chav 200,000 moog neeg nyob rau hauv Chad. Chadian pab tub rog twb kos rau hauv lub sib cav sib ceg puav, raws li Sudanese pej xeem cov tub rog traversed lub outskirt rau hauv Chad sij hawm uas lawv Sudanese dissidents taus evacuee camps; Chadian revolutionaries tau zoo li no txuam nrog kev ua hauj lwm los ntawm hauv paus nyob rau hauv Sudan. Lub legislatures nyob rau hauv ob qho tib si Chad thiab Sudan blamed txhua lwm yam kev txhawb radical zog nyob rau hauv lwm lub teb chaws. Nyob rau hauv Lub ib hlis ntuj 2008 ib tug European Union peacekeeping lub hwj chim twb conveyed rau luag poob cev qhev ntawm Chad, Sudan, thiab lub Central African koom pheej nyob rau hauv nriaj aav raws tuaj txog pem ntwg; nws twb supplanted los ntawm ib tug loj npaj txhij txog ntawm United Nations peacekeeping powers nyob rau hauv lub peb hlis ntuj 2009.

Endeavors los mus txiav txim cov teeb meem uas tshwm sim los ntev lub sij hawm ntawm sib cav sib ceg ntawm cov Chad thiab Sudan tau ua nyob rau hauv 2007 thiab 2008 tsis tau ntsib nrog me ntsis kev kawm. Ib tug lub hom phiaj ciali, los ntawm tag nrho cov nyiaj, ua rau nyob rau hauv Lub ib hlis ntuj 2010 thaum lub administrations ntawm ob haiv neeg kos npe tso cai rau ib qho kev npaj uas accommodated lub txoj kev los tswj lawv lub outskirt thiab kev pom tias tsis yog ib tug ntawm cov teb chaws yuav cia lub renegade gatherings ntawm lwm yam mus rau ua hauj lwm los ntawm hauv nws sau.

Keeb kwm ntawm Chad
Keeb kwm ntawm Chad

Nyob rau hauv 2011 Chad tus thawj tswj haiv neeg yog nyob rau ntawm thawj deferred rau ib nrab ib lub hlis, Thaj nyob rau tawm tsam los ntawm cov kuj txog tsis xws luag nyob rau hauv lub pov ntawv xaiv tsa-npe. Txawm li cas los ntawm lub ncua, lub hauv paus ntsiab lus kuj cov nuj nqis khaws cia li hais tias lawv grumblings twb tsis tswm, thiab, xa mus rau cov teeb meem ntawm ib tug siv tau pov ntawv tawm suab, lawv boycotted lub Plaub Hlis Ntuj 25 kev txiav txim siab. Déby twb reelected, winning heev ze li ntawm 89 feem pua ​​ntawm cov kev pov npav.

Nyob rau hauv lub meantime, lub cheeb tsam tsev kawm nyob ib ncig ntawm Chad ces yuav tsum ib expansion nyob rau hauv Islamic tus tsim txom ntxub ntxaug. Nrog zaum cov feem ntau grounded armed quab yuam nyob rau hauv lub chaw, Chad tsiv mus rau fore ntawm antiterrorism endeavors, xa nws cov tub rog nyob qhov twg yuav tsum tau, piv txwv li, rau Mali nyob rau hauv 2013. Ib tug Islamic activist sib sau ua ke, Nigeria-based Boko Haram, started to move past that nation’s outskirts, propelling assaults in Chad and other close-by nations. Chad played the main job in endeavors to battle the gathering, which prompted an expansion of Boko Haram to fear-based oppressor assaults inside the nation. Chad’s antiterrorism endeavors earned Déby much acclaim on the worldwide stage, Txawm li cas los, at home, his system stayed severe, confining political rivals, columnists, and exchange unionists.

The run-up to the 2016 presidential race saw an uncommon measure of dissent against Déby’s system, including exhibitions and a general strike that,t acquired business numerous regions to a halt. Nyob rau hauv txhua rooj plaub, Déby, who confronted 13 different hopefuls, was favored to win the April 10 race and did, with authorities pronouncing that he got right around 62 feem pua ​​ntawm cov kev pov npav. tseeb, even before the outcomes were discharged, some resistance chiefs voiced charges of casting a ballot misrepresentation, and there was much analysis of the correspondences power outage during and after the race.

Another constitution was declared in May 2018. Among the progressions were those that extended the presidential forces. The post of leader was canceled, and the president’s term was changed from five years, with no term limits, to six years, with a point of confinement of two terms. The progressions to the president’s term, notwithstanding, would not be connected retroactively, implying that Déby could stay in office until 2033. Parliamentary haiv neeg uas tau raug kev tsim nyob rau hauv 2015 Txawm li cas los ceaselessly deferred tau ntxiv ncua, kev kuaj yuav npaj rau 2019.

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