Tsev

Independence hnub Pakistan
Independence hnub Pakistan
Independence hnub Pakistan

Independence hnub saib txhua txhua xyoo nyob rau hauv 14 Lub yim hli ntuj, yog ib lub teb chaws cov nyiaj so koobtsheej nyob rau hauv Pakistan. Nws yeej pom tau tias hnub twg thaum twg Pakistan tiav kev ywj pheej thiab tau tshaj tawm ib tug sovereign xeev nram qab no lub finish ntawm lub British Raj nyob rau hauv 1947. Pakistan nyob vim hais tias ntawm lub Pakistan Movement, uas mus rau zus tau tej cov ib tug dawb Muslim lub xeev nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb-western locales ntawm South Asia siv khiav cov parcel. Txoj kev loj hlob tau tsav los ntawm lub All-Is Nrias teb Muslim League raws li cov cai ntawm Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Lub sij hawm no twb xa los ntawm lub Indian Independence Act 1947 nyob rau hauv uas lub British Raj muaj kev ywj pheej rau lub ntiaj teb ntawm Pakistan uas muaj West Pakistan (tam sim no-hnub Pakistan) thiab East Pakistan (presently Bangladesh). Nyob rau hauv lub Islamic sij hawm, lub hnub ntawm kev ywj pheej pom nrog Ramadan 27, lub tswv yim uas, ua Laylat al-Qadr, yog saib raws li dawb huv los ntawm cov Muslims.

Independence hnub Pakistan
Independence hnub Pakistan

Lub hauv paus ntsiab lus Independence hnub muaj nuj nqi tshwm sim nyob rau hauv Islamabad, qhov twg hauv lub teb chaws banner yog tsa nyob rau cov Medal thiab Parliament lug. Nws yog trailed los ntawm lub teb chaws song ntawm kev rau siab thiab nyob tshaj tawm hauv xov cov lus hais los ntawm cov tho kev. Qhov celebratory zaus thiab merriments rau lub hnub teeb banner-raising kev pab, marches, social zaus, thiab cov kev ua si ntawm devoted tunes. Ntau yawm cov kev pab cuam muaj tsis tu ncua dai rau hnub no, thiab Pakistanis nqa lub teb chaws banner rau lawv lub tsev los yog qhia nws unmistakably rau lawv cov tsheb thiab hnav khaub ncaws.

Foundation

Ib tug stamp, dawb tawm ntawm lub xub ntiag, nrog Pakistan lub teb chaws banner rau nws thiab “Independence ib” sau nyob rau hauv tawm thiab ntawv qaij, nyob rau hauv ntsuab shading, ib tug “kev kho” quaj tawv heev sau nyob rau hauv qhov tsaus ntuj nti shading, hauv qab lub banner

Pem hauv ntej ntawm ib tug hauj lwm daim ntawv qhia; “Independence Ib Series” los ntawm qhov xovxwm ntaub ntawv Department of Pakistan, nyob rau hauv 1948 nyob rau hauv kev twb kev txuas mus rau lub teb chaws tus thawj ywj siab hnub uas tau qhuas rau 15 Lub yim hli ntuj 1948.

Independence hnub Pakistan
Independence hnub Pakistan

Lub chaw uas zoo heev tsim kom Pakistan yog verifiably ib daim ntawm cov British Indian faj tim teb chaws tag nrho los ntawm ib tug zoo kawg ib feem ntawm lub puas tawm xyoo. Lub East Is Nrias teb tuam txhab pib lawv pauv South Asia nyob rau hauv lub thib kaum xya xyoo pua, thiab lub koom haum hauv paus ntsiab lus pib nyob rau hauv 1757 thaum lawv yeej sib ntaus sib tua ntawm Plassey. Ua raws li cov Indian Rebellion ntawm 1857, tsoom fwv ntawm Is Nrias teb Act 1858 sim hawm caij nyoog lub British Crown txais ncaj qha cai tshaj ib tug zoo ib feem ntawm lub Indian subcontinent. Tag nrho cov-Is Nrias teb Muslim League yog tsim los pab los ntawm cov tag nrho cov Is Nrias teb Muhammadan Educational sablaj ntawm Dhaka, nyob rau hauv 1906, nrog regards mus rau lub tej yam kev mob uas tau ua dua lub division ntawm Bengal nyob rau hauv 1905 thiab lub sib sau ua ke mus rau tsim ntawm ib tug txawv Muslim lub xeev.

Lub sij hawm tom qab lub ntiaj teb no ua tsov ua rog kuv tau tsa los ntawm British hloov, piv txwv li, lub Montagu-Chelmsford kho, Txawm li cas los, nws ntxiv pom lub tsev ntawm lub loj heev Rowlatt Act thiab strident hu rau nws tus kheej-txoj cai los ntawm Indian activists. Lub thoob plaws lub rooj tsavxwm discontent ntawm lub sij hawm no solidified rau hauv teb chaws muaj kev thaj yeeb uas tsis yog-kev koom tes thiab cov ua tsis raws. Cov kev xav rau ib tug txawv Muslim lub xeev nyob rau hauv lub qaum teb hnub poob locales ntawm South Asia twb hais los ntawm Allama Iqbal nyob rau hauv nws discourse li cov thawj coj ntawm cov Muslim League nyob rau hauv lub Kaum Ob Hlis 1930. Tom qab peb xyoos, lub npe ntawm “Pakistan” raws li ib tug sib txawv xeev twb npaj siab nyob rau hauv ib tug txoj lus pom zoo los ntawm Choudhary Rahmat Ali, raws li ib tug tsiaj ntawv. Nws yog koom nrog rau lub tsib “sab qaum teb units” ntawm Punjab, Afghani (yav dhau los North-West Frontier xeev), Kashmir, yog, thiab Baluchistan. Zoo li Iqbal, Bengal twb cia nyob ib leeg rau lub taub Tawvv los ntawm Rahmat Ali.

Independence hnub Pakistan
Independence hnub Pakistan

Thaum lub sij hawm lub 1940s, raws li cov Indian ywj siab txoj kev loj hlob heightened, ib tug upsurge ntawm Muslim nationalism helmed los ntawm lub All-Is Nrias teb Muslim League tshwm sim, ntawm uas Muhammad Ali Jinnah yog tus tshaj plaws ntug pioneer. Yog ib tug ideological pab pawg neeg kom paub tseeb cov kev txaus siab ntawm cov Muslim diaspora nyob rau hauv British Is Nrias teb, lub Muslim League assumed ib unequivocal txoj hauj lwm thaum lub sij hawm lub 1940s nyob rau hauv lub Indian ywj siab txoj kev loj hlob thiab tsim rau hauv lub ntsiab thrust qab tus txiav txim siab ntawm Pakistan raws li ib tug Muslim lub xeev nyob rau hauv South Asia. Thaum lub sij hawm ib tug peb-hnub kev sib kho ntawm Tag nrho cov-Is Nrias teb Muslim League ntawm 22-24 Lub peb hlis ntuj 1940, ib tug formal nom tswv piav tau tshaaj, lub npe hu ua lub Lahore Resolution, uas mus rau tsim ntawm ib tug dawb lub xeev rau Muslims. Nyob rau hauv 1956, 23 Lub peb hlis ntuj ntxiv tig mus rau hauv lub hnub nyob rau hauv uas Pakistan hloov los ntawm ib tug lub teb chaws mus rau ib tug koom pheej, thiab yog lub npe hu ua Pakistan hnub.

Independence

Independence hnub Pakistan
Independence hnub Pakistan

Nyob rau hauv 1946, lub Labor tsoom fwv nyob rau hauv teb chaws Aas Kiv, depleted los ntawm kev tu ncua lub sij hawm ntawd, piv txwv li, Ntiaj teb ua tsov ua rog II thiab ntau yam uproars, to taub hais tias nws muaj tej nuj nqis qhov hais kom ua nyob rau hauv tsev, kev pab chaw, los yog cov dependability ntawm lub British Indian Army rau cov tswv yim los tswj ib tug undeniably xav British Is Nrias teb. Lub unwavering zoo ntawm lub zos powers rau tswv yim nrog rau lawv cov kev cai tshaj ib tug undeniably insubordinate Is Nrias teb ntxub, yog li tus thawj coj tau xaiv los ua xaus lub British hauv paus ntsiab lus ntawm cov Indian subcontinent. Nyob rau hauv 1946, lub Indian National Congress, yog ib tug mainstream tog, thov ib tug keev xeeb lub xeev. Cov Muslim hom qhov chaw, leej twg yuav pab tsis tau ua tsis muaj ib zaug xwb lub xeev, teem rau cov tau ntawm ib tug txawv Pakistan li ib lwm txoj. Cov 1946 Txee lub hom phiaj mus Is Nrias teb twb raug xa mus sim mus cuag ib tug trade-off cov Congress thiab cov Muslim League, thov ib tug decentralized lub xeev uas muaj ntau npaum li cas muab lub hwj chim rau cov neeg zej zog tsoom fwv, Txawm li cas los, nws twb tso los ntawm ob qho tib si ntawm cov gatherings thiab coj txog ntau yam mobs nyob rau hauv South Asia.

Independence hnub Pakistan
Independence hnub Pakistan

Nyob rau hauv lub ntev mus dhia, nyob rau hauv Lub ob hlis ntuj 1947, Prime Minister Clement Attlee tshaj tawm tias tus British tsoom fwv yuav cia tag nrho nws tus kheej-cov thawj coj mus British Is Nrias teb los ntawm Lub rau hli ntuj 1948 nyob rau feem ntau tsis ntev los no. Nyob rau 3 Lub rau hli ntuj 1947, lub British tsoom fwv tshaj tawm hais tias cov kev cai ntawm kev faib ntawm British Is Nrias teb mus rau hauv ob yooj yim lub xeev twb muaj leej twg paub. Lub successor tsoom fwv yuav muab liaj ia tebchaws raws li txoj cai thiab yuav muaj ib tug tej yam koob hmoov tawm ntawm lub British tebchaws. Emissary Mountbatten khaws 15 Lub yim hli ntuj, tus thib ob koobtsheej uas nco txog Nyiv lub muab nyob rau hauv lub ntiaj teb no ua tsov ua rog II, raws li cov hnub uas qhov kev siv tawm. nws khaws 14 Lub yim hli ntuj raws li cov hnub uas cov kev pab cuam ntawm kev siv txav mus rau Pakistan txij li thaum nws yuav tsum tau mus rau lub zog nyob rau hauv lub ob Is Nrias teb thiab Pakistan.

Independence hnub Pakistan
Independence hnub Pakistan

Lub Indian Independence Act 1947 (10 thiab 11 Geo 6 c. 30) ploj mus los ntawm lub Parliament ntawm lub tebchaws United Kingdom cais British Is Nrias teb mus rau hauv lub ob tug tshiab autonomous territories; lub ntiaj teb ntawm Is Nrias teb (tom qab tig mus rau hauv lub koom pheej ntawm Is Nrias teb) thiab lub ntiaj teb ntawm Pakistan (tom qab tig mus rau hauv lub Islamic koom pheej ntawm Pakistan). Cov qauv qhia muab ib feem rau division ntawm lub Tsov nplooj suab thiab Punjab chaw nruab nrab ntawm ob haiv neeg (saib lub ya ntawm Is Nrias teb), lub hauv paus ntawm lub chaw ua hauj lwm ntawm tus tswv xeev-General, muab cov tiav authoritative cov kws muaj txuj raws li qhov nyias muaj nyias kev Constituent sibtham, thiab sib faib ntawm ob leeg tej khoom vaj tse ntawm cov ob tug tshiab lub teb chaws. Txoj cai tom qab tau illustrious tso cai rau 18 Lub Xya hli ntuj 1947. Lub ya tau tuaj koom los ntawm tsiv mobs thiab loj setbacks, thiab lub dislodging ntawm yuav luag 15 lab cov neeg vim hais tias kev cai dab qhuas kev ntxub ntxaug tshaj lub subcontinent; ib tug loj tus naj npawb ntawm cov Muslim, Sikh thiab Hindu neeg khiav tsev trekked cov nyuam qhuav attracted fringes rau Pakistan thiab India cais nyob rau hauv lub hlis encompassing kev ywj pheej. Nyob rau 14 Lub yim hli ntuj 1947, tus tshiab dominion Pakistan twb tuaj siv yooj yim thiab Muhammad Ali Jinnah twb paub tseeb hais tias raws li nws cov thawj sawv cev kev nyob rau hauv Karachi. Independence twb tsa nrog thoob plaws lub rooj tsavxwm festivity, tsis tau cov ib puag ncig nyob sov so muab cov mobs predominant thaum lub sij hawm ywj siab nyob rau hauv 1947.

Lub hnub ntawm kev ywj pheej

Independence hnub Pakistan
Independence hnub Pakistan

Txij li thaum cov kev pauv ntawm kev siv tshwm sim nyob rau lub ib tag hmo ntawm 14 thiab 15 Lub yim hli ntuj, lub Indian Independence Act 1947 ntaus nqi 15 Lub yim hli ntuj raws li lub hnub yug ntawm ob Pakistan thiab India. Cov qauv qhia lub xeev;

Raws li ntawm lub thib kaum tsib hnub ntawm lub yim hli ntuj, kaum cuaj puas thiab plaub caug xya, ob autonomous txoj kev uas kav yuav tau teem caij nyob rau hauv Is Nrias teb, yuav tsum tau xa mus rau nyias raws li Is Nrias teb thiab Pakistan.

Lub hom memorial nqi xa ntawv nyiaj muas ntawm lub teb chaws, tawm nyob rau hauv Lub Xya hli ntuj 1948, ntxiv muab 15 Lub yim hli ntuj 1947 raws li cov kev ywj pheej hnub, lawm nyob rau hauv consequent xyoo 14 Lub yim hli ntuj twb embraced li lub ywj pheej hnub. Qhov no yog vim hais tias Mountbatten tswj lub ywj pheej cog lus rau Jinnah rau lub kaum plaub, ua ntej tawm rau Is Nrias teb qhov twg cov lus cog tseg twb booked nyob rau ib tag hmo ntawm lub thib kaum tsib. Cov yav tsaus ntuj ntawm 14-15 Lub yim hli ntuj 1947 corresponded nrog 27 Ramadan 1366 ntawm lub Islamic sij hawm, uas Muslims saib raws li ib tug fij hmo ntuj.

Official festivals

Independence hnub Pakistan
Independence hnub Pakistan

Cov kev ywj pheej hnub yog ib tug ntawm rau pej xeem cov hnub caiv pom nyob rau hauv Pakistan thiab yog commended rau tag nrho cov txoj kev hla lub teb chaws. Yuav kom npaj txhij thiab daws designs rau kev ywj pheej hnub festivities, gatherings muaj nyob rau hauv cov capitals los ntawm zej zog cov nom tswv uas yuav ploj mus rau los ntawm tsoom fwv cov tub ceev xwm, negotiators, thiab legislators. Public koom haum ua teb, instructive lag, thiab tsoom fwv cov kev sib cais txheeb tawm kev kawm, kev ua si rivalries, thiab kev sib raug zoo thiab kev sib raug zoo ce paving txoj kev mus rau lub ywj pheej hnub. Nyob rau hauv Karachi, drives pib los ntxuav thiab teem lub Mazar-e-Quaid (Jinnah Mausoleum) rau lub Success.

Public festivals

Independence hnub Pakistan
Independence hnub Pakistan

Raws li qhov ntev stretch ntawm lub yim hli ntuj pib, cim qeeb, funfairs thiab cov khw yog teem lub teb chaws tshaj rau lub closeout ntawm lub teb chaws banners, buntings, pennants thiab cov ntaub ntawv, identifications, duab ntawm lub teb chaws cov neeg ntseeg, lub xub ntiag thiab lub suab thiab lwm yam celebratory yam. tsheb, private lug, tsev, thiab txoj kev yuav kho kom zoo nrog lub teb chaws banners, taws tswm ciab, roj teeb, chij, thiab buntings. Cov koom haum muab feem nyob rau hauv txhij txhua los txhawb, raws li tsav tsheb kws kes duab vajtse tsim outlets uas Tshuag ywj siab-themed attire, gems, thiab nws tus kheej-embellishments.

h3 txog posts:

Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb
Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb
Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb

Independence hnub yog txhua txhua xyoo lom rau 15 Lub yim hli ntuj, raws li ib tug lub teb chaws cov nyiaj so koobtsheej nyob rau hauv Is Nrias teb saib lub teb chaws ywj pheej los ntawm lub tebchaws United Kingdom rau 15 Lub yim hli ntuj 1947, lub UK Parliament dhau lub Indian Independence Act 1947 tsiv authoritative sway mus rau lub Indian Constituent los ua ke. Is Nrias teb tseem muaj huab tais George VI li lub taub hau ntawm lub xeev kom txog thaum nws hloov mus rau tag nrho Republican cov kevcai tswj. Is Nrias teb tiav kev ywj pheej raws li qhov Independence Movement sau tseg rau kom ib tug twg muaj kev thaj yeeb tawm tsam thiab kev ntau tawv ncauj uas tau tsav los ntawm cov Indian National Congress (INC). Independence pom zoo nrog rau parcel ntawm Is Nrias teb, nyob rau hauv uas British Is Nrias teb twb sib cais raws kev cai dab qhuas kab mus rau hauv lub txoj kev uas kav ntawm Is Nrias teb thiab Pakistan; lub ya tau tuaj koom los ntawm ntxhib mobs thiab loj losses, thiab lub dislodging ntawm yuav luag 15 lab cov neeg vim hais tias kev cai dab qhuas kev ntxub ntxaug. Nyob rau 15 Lub yim hli ntuj 1947, tus thawj xib fwb Prime Minister ntawm Is Nrias teb, Jawaharlal Nehru tsa cov Indian lub teb chaws banner tshaj lub Lahori Rooj vag ntawm lub Red Fort nyob rau hauv Delhi. Nyob rau txhua ensuing Independence hnub, lub neeg Prime Minister feem ntau seb puas tsimnyog tau lub banner thiab muab ib qho chaw mus rau lub teb chaws. Tag nrho cov sij hawm yog tshwm los ntawm Doordarshan, Is Nrias teb lub teb chaws supporter, thiab rau qhov cov, pib nrog lub shehnai suab paj nruag ntawm Ustad Bismillah Khan.

Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb
Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb

Independence hnub no saib tag nrho cov los ntawm Is Nrias teb nrog banner-raising kev pab, marches thiab kev lub sij hawm ntawd. Nws yog ib lub teb chaws nyiaj so koobtsheej.

Keeb kwm

Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb
Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb

European brokers tau teem noj nyob rau hauv lub Indian subcontinent los ntawm lub thib kaum xya xyoo pua. Los ntawm overpowering tub rog zoo, lub British East Is Nrias teb lub koom haum quelled nyob ze kingdoms thiab ua li lawv tus kheej raws li lub prevailing hwj chim los ntawm lub xyoo pua. Ua raws li cov Thawj ua tsov ua rog ntawm ywj pheej ntawm 1857, tsoom fwv ntawm Is Nrias teb Act 1858 tsav tsheb mus rau hauv lub British Crown xav tias yuav ncaj qha tswj ntawm Is Nrias teb. Nyob rau hauv lub xyoo lawm nram qab no, metro haiv neeg tsis tu ncua tsim crosswise tshaj Is Nrias teb, feem ntau prominently lub Indian National Congress tog, framed nyob rau hauv 1885. Lub sij hawm tom qab lub ntiaj teb no ua tsov ua rog kuv tau tsa los ntawm British hloov, piv txwv li, lub Montagu-Chelmsford kho, Txawm li cas los, nws ntxiv pom lub sanctioning ntawm lub tsim Rowlatt Act thiab hu rau nws tus kheej-txoj cai los ntawm Indian activists. Lub discontent ntawm lub sij hawm no solidified rau hauv teb chaws muaj kev thaj yeeb uas tsis yog-kev koom tes thiab cov ua tsis raws, tsav los ntawm Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.

Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb
Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb

Thaum lub sij hawm lub xyoo 1930, qhov kev hloov tau tom los ntawm me ntsis muab los ntawm lub British; Congress yeej triumphs nyob rau hauv lub tom ntej kev xaiv tsa. Lub ib xyoo caum ntawm tam sim no twb plagued nrog nom tswv ntxaug: Indian peev nyob rau hauv lub ntiaj teb no ua tsov ua rog II, lub Congress’ kawg laub rau uas tsis yog-kev koom tes, thiab ib tug upsurge ntawm Muslim nationalism tsav los ntawm lub All-Is Nrias teb Muslim League. Lub nce nom tswv siab twb topped ntawm Independence nyob rau hauv 1947. Kev ua koob tsheej tau tempered los ntawm lub tsis ya ntawm lub subcontinent rau hauv Is Nrias teb thiab Pakistan.

Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb
Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb

Ya thiab kev ywj pheej

Ib tug ntau Muslim, Sikh, thiab Hindu moog neeg trekked cov nyuam qhuav tuaj txog pem ntwg attracted rau lub hlis encompassing kev ywj pheej. Nyob rau hauv Punjab, qhov twg tuaj txog pem ntwg cais Sikh chaw nyob rau hauv sib npaug zos qhov chaw, loj loj slaughter caum; nyob rau hauv Tsov nplooj suab thiab Bihar, qhov twg Mahatma Gandhi tus zoo soothed qhia tempers, lub kev ntxub ntxaug tau moderated. Noj tag nrho cov yam ua ke, qhov chaw nyob rau hauv lub chav 250,000 thiab 1,000,000 cov tib neeg nyob rau hauv ob sab ntawm tus tshiab fringes ncaws lub thoob nyob rau hauv lub viciousness. Thaum tag nrho cov teb chaws twb commending lub Independence Day, Gandhi nyob rau hauv Calcutta sim qia lub carnage. Nyob rau 14 Lub yim hli ntuj 1947, lub Independence Day of Pakistan, tus tshiab dominion Pakistan nyob; Muhammad Ali Jinnah twb paub tseeb hais tias raws li nws cov thawj Governor-General nyob rau hauv Karachi.

Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb
Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb

festivity

Independence hnub, ib tug ntawm peb lub teb chaws hnub caiv nyob rau hauv Is Nrias teb (cov lwm yam ob ua cov koom pheej hnub rau 26 Lub ib hlis ntuj thiab Mahatma Gandhi lub hnub yug rau 2 Lub kaum hli ntuj), yog pom nyob rau hauv txhua txhua ib Indian lub xeev thiab koom haum cheeb tsam. Nyob rau lub tswv yim ntawm Independence hnub, Thawj Tswj Hwm ntawm Is Nrias teb conveys “Chaw nyob rau hauv lub teb chaws”. Nyob rau 15 Lub yim hli ntuj, lub Prime Minister seb puas tsimnyog tau cov Indian banner rau lub defenses ntawm cov qhabnias ntawm qhov chaw ntawm liab Fort nyob rau hauv Delhi. Nees-nkaum ib riam phom txhaj tshuaj tawm tawm ntawm kev txaus siab rau lub qhov ntxa kev tshwm sim. Nyob rau hauv nws kev daws, lub Prime Minister nta lub xyoo dhau los tus ua tiav, seb puas tsimnyog tau teeb meem loj teeb meem thiab hu rau ntxiv txoj kev txhim kho. Nws them tribute rau cov pioneer ntawm lub Indian ywj siab txoj kev loj hlob. Lub Indian lub teb chaws song of siab, “Jana Gana Mana”, yog hu. Cov kev daws yog trailed los ntawm ib tug taug kev dhau los ntawm cov pawg ntawm cov Indian Armed Forces thiab paramilitary powers. Marches thiab expos grandstand scenes ntawm lub ywj pheej sib ntaus sib tua thiab Is Nrias teb tus assorted kev lis kev cai. Piv zaus tshwm sim nyob rau hauv lub xeev capitals qhov twg lub Chief Ministers ntawm ib tug neeg lub xeev kis tawm lub teb chaws banner, trailed los ntawm motorcades thiab cov txheej xwm. Kom txog rau thaum 1973, tus tswv xeev ntawm lub xeev tsa lub National Flag ntawm lub State capital. Nyob rau hauv Lub ob hlis ntuj 1974, lub Chief Minister ntawm Tamil Nadu, M. Karunanidhi tsis pom zoo nrog ces Prime Minister Indira Gandhi hais tias tus Chief Ministers yuav tsum tso cai tsa teb chaws banner rau Independence hnub tsuas zoo li yuav ua li cas Prime Minister lawd National banner rau Independence hnub. Tom qab ntawd Chief Ministers ntawm cais lub xeev muaj cai tsa teb chaws Flag rau Independence hnub festivity los ntawm 1974.

IndependenceIndependence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb
Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb

Banner lifting zog thiab kev tej yaam num tshwm sim nyob rau hauv PatientsÕ thiab uas tsis yog-kev tswj lag tag nrho cov los ntawm lub teb chaws. Tsev kawm ntawv thiab universities direct banner-raising kev pab thiab kev lub sij hawm ntawd. Tseem ceeb tsoom fwv lug muaj tsis tu ncua embellished nrog cov hlua ntawm cov teeb. Nyob rau hauv Delhi thiab tej yam txawv nroog zej zog, kite ya ntxiv rau cov kev tshwm sim. National banners ntawm ntau ntau thiab tsawg yog siv tsis tas ua lub cim rau siab mus rau lub teb chaws. Neeg uas nyob embellish lawv hnav ris tsho, wristbands, tsheb, tsev neeg adornments nrog reproductions ntawm lub tri-shading. Nyob tej lub sij hawm, lub Success tau hloov accentuation los ntawm nationalism mus rau ib tug ntau kim heev Success ntawm txhua yam Is Nrias teb.

Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb
Independence hnub ntawm Is Nrias teb

Lub Indian diaspora observes Independence hnub nyob ib ncig ntawm lub ntiaj teb nrog processions thiab miv, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog nyob rau hauv cheeb tsam uas muaj ntau dua centralizations ntawm Indian neeg ua hauj lwm. Nyob rau hauv tej qhov chaw, piv txwv li, New York thiab txawv US nroog zej zog, 15 Lub yim hli ntuj tau tsiv mus rau kab “Is Nrias teb hnub” ntawm cov diaspora thiab cov neeg zej zog masses. Expos soj ntsuam “Is Nrias teb hnub” ua nyob rau hauv 15 Lub yim hli ntuj los yog ib tug txuas rau thaum xaus ntawm lub weekday.

h3 txog posts:

Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad

Chad Arabic: Chad Tshād, Arabic articulation: [tʃaːd]; Fabkis: Chad, articulated [tʃa(d)]), authoritatively lub koom pheej ntawm Chad(Arabic: Koom pheej ntawm Chad Jumhūriyyat Tshād; Fabkis: Koom pheej ntawm Chad txaj. “Koom pheej uas tus Chad”), yog ib tug landlocked lub teb chaws nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb-focal Africa. Nws yog flanked los ntawm Libya mus rau sab qaum teb, Sudan mus rau sab hnub tuaj, lub Central African koom pheej mus rau sab qab teb, Cameroon thiab Nigeria mus rau lub southwest, thiab Niger mus rau sab hnub poob. Nws yog ib lub thib tsib biggest lub teb chaws nyob rau hauv teb chaws Africa thiab lub thib ob-loj tshaj nyob rau hauv Central teb chaws Africa txog hauv lub cheeb tsam. “lub Chadian” yog tus nom song ntawm lub siab ntawm Chad.

Chad muaj ib tug ob peb cheeb tsam: suab puam tsam nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb, ib tug pob txha qhuav Sahelian siv nyob rau hauv lub sab hauv thiab ib tug progressively siav Sudanian Savanna tsam nyob rau hauv sab qab teb. Lake Chad, tom qab uas lub teb chaws yog muaj npe, yog lub biggest wetland nyob rau hauv Chad thiab lub thib ob-loj tshaj nyob rau hauv teb chaws Africa. Peev N'Djamena yog lub biggest nroog. Chad tus tsim nyog dialects yog Arabic thiab Fabkis. Chad yog lub tsev mus rau ntau tshaj 200 yus haiv neeg thiab phonetic gatherings. Qhov tseem mainstream cai dab qhuas ntawm Chad yog Islam (ntawm 55%), trailed los ntawm Christianity (ntawm 40%).

Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad

Pib nyob rau hauv lub xya txhiab xyoo BC, tib neeg populaces tsiv mus rau hauv lub Chadian tais nyob rau hauv extraordinary xov tooj. Ua ntej lub finish ntawm lub thawj txhiab xyoo AD, ib tug mob ntawm lub xeev thiab realms tau sawv thiab poob nyob rau hauv Chad tus Sahelian sawb, txhua nyob ib ncig ntawm tswj lub trans-Saharan pauv cov hoob kawm uas tau mus los ntawm qhov chaw.

Fabkis vanquished sau los ntawm 1920 thiab koom nws raws li ib tug feature ntawm Fabkis Equatorial Africa. Nyob rau hauv 1960, Chad nrhiav kev ywj pheej nyob rau hauv lub koom haum saib xyuas ntawm François Tombalbaye. Ntxub ntawm nws le caag nyob rau hauv lub Muslim sab qaum teb lawm nyob rau hauv lub ncaws ntawm ib tug ruaj heev tsov rog nyob rau hauv 1965. Nyob rau hauv 1979 lub agitators vanquished lub capital thiab muab tso rau ib tug xaus mus rau sab qab teb txoj cai. Nyob rau hauv txhua rooj plaub, lub agitator tub ceev xwm rog ntawm lawv tus kheej kom txog thaum Hissène Habré vanquished nws adversaries. Nws twb ousted thusly nyob rau hauv 1990 los ntawm nws kev Idriss Déby. Txij li thaum 2003 lub Darfur thaum muaj xwm ceev nyob rau hauv Sudan tau spilled tshaj lub outskirt thiab destabilized lub teb chaws. Tsis li ntawm tam sim no, lub teb chaws thiab cov neeg sim kom haum ib tug lossis loj tus naj npawb ntawm Sudanese neeg raug ncaws tawm uas nyob rau hauv thiab ib ncig ntawm camps nyob rau hauv sab hnub tuaj Chad.

Thaum heev heev ideological pawg dynamic, tswj cov lus dag immovably nyob rau hauv lub ob txhais tes ntawm Thawj Tswj Hwm Déby thiab nws ideological pab pawg neeg, lub Patriotic Salvation Movement. Chad tshua quaj los kuamuag vim los ntawm nom tswv viciousness thiab repetitive endeavored overthrows d'état. Chad yog ib tug ntawm cov yam tsawg kawg muaj hmoo thiab feem ntau degenerate haiv neeg nyob rau hauv lub ntiaj chaw; feem ntau neeg nyob rau hauv neediness li subsistence herders thiab ranchers. Txij li thaum 2003 nyoos roj av tau muab rau hauv lub teb chaws tus tseem ceeb wellspring ntawm nqi nyiaj khwv tau los, supplanting lub customary paj rwb kev lag luam.

Keeb kwm

Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad

Nyob rau hauv lub xya txhiab xyoo BC, ib puag ncig tej yam kev mob nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb seem ntawm A Chadian cheeb tsam favored tib neeg hais sib haum, thiab lub chaw ces yuav tsum muaj khoom pej xeem increment. Tej zaum cov feem ntau tseem ceeb African archeological locales yog pom nyob rau hauv Chad, chiefly nyob rau hauv lub Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Thaj av; ib co hnub mus ntxov tshaj 2000 BC.

rau ntau tshaj 2,000 xyoo, lub Chadian Phiab tau tau muaj los ntawm Agrarian thiab nyob ruaj ruaj tus neeg. Lub cheeb tsam muab rau hauv ib tug hlws ris ntawm pej xeem tsim tau. Qhov tseem raws sijhawm ntawm cov no twb zoo kawg Sao, paub los ntawm ancient rarities thiab lub qhov ncauj nyiaj. Lub Sao tumbled mus rau lub Kanem faj tim teb chaws, tus thawj thiab ntev-nyiaj ib puas tsav ntawm lub realms uas tsim nyob rau hauv Chad tus Sahelian sawb ua ntej lub finish ntawm lub thawj txhiab xyoo AD. Ob tug sib txawv xeev nyob rau hauv lub cheeb tsam, Sultanate ntawm Bagirmiand Wadai faj tim teb chaws sawv nyob rau hauv lub thib kaum rau thiab thib kaum xya pua xyoo. Cov kev siv cov Kanem thiab nws cov successors depended rau kev tswj ntawm lub trans-Saharan pauv cov hoob kawm uas tau mus los ntawm lub cheeb tsam. cov xeev, thaum twg tus nqi implicitly Muslim, yeej tsis ncav us txog tawm lawv tswj mus rau yav qab teb Prairies tab sis mus tua rau qhev. Nyob rau hauv Kanem, txog 33% ntawm lub pej xeem ua qhev.

Fabkis pilgrim txoj kev loj hlob sim hawm caij nyoog lub tsim ntawm lub tub rog ncig ntawm lub teb chaws thiab lub Protectorates nyob rau hauv Chad 1900. los ntawm 1920, Fabkis tau qhia tau tseeb tag nrho tswj ntawm lub xeev thiab fused nws raws li ib tug feature ntawm Fabkis Equatorial Africa. Fabkis txoj ntsiab cai nyob rau hauv Chad twb portrayed los ntawm ib tug nonappearance ntawm le caag los losis tswvyim dabtsi ua ke rau sau thiab tsaug zog Modernization piv nrog rau lwm cov Fabkis settlements.

Fabkis yeej tseem zoo pom lub xeev raws li ib tug sob wellspring ntawm untrained ua hauj lwm thiab crude paj rwb; Fabkis hais loj loj scale paj rwb tiam nyob rau hauv 1929. Lub pilgrim lub koom haum nyob rau hauv Chad yog fundamentally understaffed thiab yuav tsum tau mus nyob ntawm seb lub seem ntawm lub Fabkis ntau thawj coj. Cia li lub Sara ntawm sab qab teb twb sawv cev txaus; Fabkis yua nyob rau hauv lub Islamic sab qaum teb thiab sab hnub tuaj yog ostensible. Cov qhia lub moj khaum twb tus los ntawm no disregard.

Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad

Tom qab lub ntiaj teb no ua tsov ua rog II, Fabkis conceded Chad tus txheej xwm ntawm lub txawv teb chaws cheeb tsam thiab nws cov neeg lub cib fim xaiv delegates mus rau lub teb chaws los ua ke thiab ib tug Chadian sib sau ua ke. Qhov loj tshaj ideological pab pawg neeg yog tus Chadian Progressive tog (ppt), situated nyob rau hauv lub yav qab teb feem ntawm lub xeev. Chad twb conceded ywj siab rau 11 Lub yim hli ntuj 1960 nrog lub ppt lub pioneer, Sarah François Tombalbaye, raws li nws cov thawj tus thawj tswj hwm.

Tom qab ob lub xyoos, Tombalbaye txwv tsis pub kuj pab pawg thiab los ua tau ib tug ib-tog lub moj khaum. Tombalbaye lub dictatorial txheem thiab tsis tub kom zoo fumble exacerbated ntawm haiv neeg pressures. Nyob rau hauv 1965, Muslims nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb, tsav los ntawm lub National Liberation Front ntawm Chad (FROLINAT), pib ib qho kev tsov kev rog. Tombalbaye twb ousted thiab tua nyob rau hauv 1975, Txawm li cas los, lub rebellion proceeded. Nyob rau hauv 1979 lub radical pawg tsav los ntawm Hissène Habré coj lub capital, thiab tag nrho cov focal tshwj xeeb nyob rau hauv lub teb chaws ib sij poob. Nruab pawg, heev heev los ntawm sab qaum teb lub insubordination, tiv thaiv rau lub hwj chim.

Lub deterioration ntawm Chad tshwm sim los rau lub neej puas Fabkis tus teeb meem no nyob rau hauv lub teb chaws. Libya tsiv mus rau sau lub hwj chim lub tshuab nqus tsev thiab twb tuaj txuam nrog Chad lub siab tsov rog. Libya txoj kev tiav nyob rau hauv khaum nyob rau hauv 1987; lub thawj tswj hwm Fabkis upheld, Hissène Habré, evoked ib tug unified cov tshuaj tiv thaiv los ntawm Chadians ntawm ib tug tsi tsis cai thiab tsis txaus lub Libyan armed quab yuam tawm Chadian av.

Habré merged nws kev siab phem los ntawm ib tug haib lub moj khaum uas depended rau ntawm debasement thiab kev ntxub ntxaug nrog ib tug loj tus naj npawb ntawm cov neeg soj ntsuam kom tau tua nyob rau hauv nws cov txheej txheem. Cov thawj tswj hwm txhawb nws tus kheej heev Toubou haiv neeg sib sau ua ke thiab tsim txom nws yav tas los cov neeg koom tes, lub Zaghawa. nws lub tuam, Idriss Déby, toppled nws nyob rau hauv 1990. Rau siab tsom arraign Habré sim hawm caij nyoog nws tej kab ke hauv lub tsev capture nyob rau hauv Senegal nyob rau hauv 2005; nyob rau hauv 2013, Habré twb officially liam ua tsov ua rog ua yuam kev xa thaum lub sij hawm nws txheem. Nyob rau hauv Tej zaum 2016, nws twb tshwm sim tsim kom tsum muab ntawm tib neeg txoj cai mishandles, xws li ua phem, kev sib deev kev ua qhev, thiab thov lub slaughtering ntawm 40,000 cov tib neeg thiab rau txim rau lub neej nyob rau hauv lub tsev kaw neeg.

Culture

Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad

Nyob rau account ntawm nws zoo kawg assortment ntawm cov neeg pab pawg thiab dialects, Chad muaj ib tug nplua nuj kev legacy. Lub Chadian tsoom fwv tau zoo tshaj Chadian kab lis kev cai thiab lub teb chaws kev lis kev cai los ntawm qhib lub Chad National tsev cia puav pheej thiab lub Chad Cultural Center. Rau lub teb chaws hnub caiv yog saib li qhia siv kuj, thiab portable hnub caiv teeb Christian nyiaj so koobtsheej ntawm Easter Monday thiab cov Muslim hnub caiv ntawm Eid ul-Fitr, Eid ul-Adha, thiab Eid Milad Nabi.

Lub suab paj nruag ntawm Chad sib txuas ntxiv ntawm ntau yam ceeb seev, piv txwv li, lub siab zoo, ib tug tsi ntawm nyo hau harp; Cov kev sib tham, ib tug ntev tin horn; thiab lub hu, ib tug stringed ntsuas uas utilizations calabashes li amplifiers. Txawv seev thiab lawv niam yog nce kev cob cog rua rau qhia tau meej heev haiv neeg gatherings: lub Sara lean mus rau whistles, balafon, harps, thiab Kojo drums; thiab lub Kanembu ntsaub lub yim pab ntawm drums nrog cov neeg ntawm woodwind li seev.

Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad

Millet yog lub staple kev loj hlob ntawm Chadian ua noj ua haus. Nws yog siv los mus ua kom chunks ntawm cov kua nplaum uas plunged nyob rau hauv cov kua ntsw. Nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb no tais yog lub npe hu raws li ib txwm; nyob rau hauv sab qab teb, raws li Them. Ntses yog zoo paub, uas yog feem ntau cov txheej txheem thiab muag yog li Palanga (hnub-qhuav thiab softly smoked Alestes thiab Hydrocynus) los yog raws li Banda (smoked loj loj ntses). Ib tug vajvoog yog ib tug paub zoo qab zib liab tshuaj yej sib cais los ntawm hibiscus nplooj. mixed refreshments, Txawm li cas los ploj lawm nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb, yog mainstream nyob rau hauv sab qab teb, qhov twg neeg haus dej haus pias lager, lub npe hu ua billi-billi thaum fermented los ntawm liab pias, thiab raws li costate thaum los ntawm dawb pias.

Lub suab paj nruag Rev Chari Jazz zoo li tus nyob rau hauv 1964 thiab pib Chad tus txiav ntug suab paj nruag scene. Tom qab ntawd, progressively nto moo gatherings, piv txwv li, African Suab paj nruag thiab International Challah endeavored muab innovation thiab convention. Nto moo gatherings, piv txwv li, Tibesti tau clung cuam sai rau lawv legacy los ntawm zaj lus piv rau xais, ib tug pa style ntawm cov suab paj nruag los ntawm yav qab teb Chad. Cov pejxeem ntawm Chad tau feem ntau ntxub tam sim no-hnub music. Nyob rau hauv txhua rooj plaub, nyob rau hauv 1995 ntau mas intrigue tau tsim thiab txhawb kom cov ncig ntawm CDs thiab suab tapes xws li Chadian tshwj xeeb. Tub sab tub nyiag thiab ib tug tsis tuaj kawm ntawv ntawm tsim nyog kev nyab xeeb rau craftsmen cov cai nyob twj ywm teeb meem los pab cov kev txhim kho ntawm lub Chadian music lag luam.

Raws li nyob rau hauv lwm yam Sahelian haiv neeg, sau ntawv nyob rau hauv Chad tau pom ib tug nyiaj txiag, kev nom kev tswv thiab otherworldly qhuav rau lub caij uas tau los nws zoo tshaj plaws-paub neeg sau xov xwm. Chadian sau ntawv tau raug yuam kom compose los ntawm yuam kev los yog exile raws li txoj cai thiab tau tsim kev sau ntawv txiav txim los ntawm cov ntsiab lus ntawm nom tswv mistreatment thiab chronicled tham. Txij li thaum 1962, 20 Chadian sau ntawv tau khaws cia nyob rau hauv kov nrog rau qhov chaw nyob rau hauv lub chav 60 tej hauj lwm ntawm cov ntawv tseeb. Ntawm cov feem ntau universally prestigious scholars yog Yauxej Brahim Seïd, Baba Moustapha, Antoine Bangui, thiab Koulsy Lamko. Nyob rau hauv 2003 Chad tus tib tug scholarly pundit, Ahmat Taboye faib nws Anthologie de la littérature tchadienne mus rau nam cov ntaub ntawv ntawm Chad tus sau ntawv universally thiab cov hluas thiab pab kom txawm peem rau Chad tau qhaj ntawv ntawm faib tsev thiab tshwj xeeb cov qauv.

Lub advancement ntawm lub Chadian zaj duab xis kev lag luam twb hampered los ntawm cov kev puas tsuaj ntawm ntau tsov rog thiab los ntawm cov uas tsis muaj films, uas muaj ib tug nyob rau hauv tag nrho lub teb chaws. Lub hom Chadian tivthaiv zaj duab xis, lub docudrama lawm Africa, tau ua nyob rau hauv 1999 los ntawm Mahamat Saleh Haroun. Nws tom qab zaj duab xis Abouna twb lug qhuas, thiab nws Daratt yeej cov neeg pej xeem Tshwj xeeb txim nqi zog nyob rau 63rd Venice International zaj duab xis Success. Cov 2010 caij movie A Screaming txiv neej yeej cov neeg mloog nqi zog ntawm lub 2010 Cannes zaj duab xis Success, ua Haroun thawj Chadian thawj yuav nkag mus rau, cia li raws li ib tug yeej, ib tug yawm nyob rau hauv lub siv Cannes rivalry. Issa Serge Coelo hauj lwm ua ke Chad tus ob tug sib txawv tsos, Daresalam thiab DP75: Tartina City.

Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad

Football yog Chad lub feem ntau mas kev ua si. Lub teb chaws lub teb chaws pab pawg neeg yog ntsoov caum thaum lub sij hawm universal rivalries thiab Chadian footballers tau ua si rau Fabkis pawg. B-pob thiab dawb-daim ntawv wrestling yog feem ntau tau rov qhia dua, kawg nyob rau hauv ib tug qauv nyob rau lub wrestlers muab tso rau hauv cov pa zeej stows tam sim ntawd thiab kis rau lawv tus kheej nrog residue.

Déby endeavored kom haum raws li cov radical gatherings thiab reintroduced multiparty PatientsÕ teeb meem. Chadians tseem hais ntxiv lwm cov kevcai tswj los ntawm kev xaiv, thiab nyob rau hauv 1996, Déby zoo yeej ib focused thawj tswj haiv neeg. Nws yeej ib tug thib ob lub sij hawm tsib xyoos tom qab qhov tseeb. Roj siv tsis raws cai pib nyob rau hauv Chad nyob rau hauv 2003, nqa nrog nws tso siab rau hais tias Chad yuav thaum kawg tau ib tug ob peb lub sij hawm ntawm kev sib raug zoo thiab flourishing. es, lub puab tsis sib haum intensified, thiab ib qho kev tsov kev rog tsoo tawm. Déby singularly hloov cov kevcai tswj rau ntiab tawm ob lub sij hawm tsis pub tshaj rau lub koom haum saib xyuas; no tsim ib tug scene ntawm cov ntau haiv neeg thiab kuj pab pawg.

Nyob rau hauv 2006 Déby yeej ib feem peb hais kom ua nyob rau hauv kev txiav txim siab hais tias tus kuj boycotted. Pawg lwm haiv tib viciousness nyob rau hauv sab hnub tuaj Chad muaj txhab; hauv lub tebchaws United Nations High Commissioner rau neeg tawg rog tau ceev faj hais tias ib tug decimation zoo li hais tias nyob rau hauv Darfur yuav tsis tau tshwm sim nyob rau hauv Chad. Nyob rau hauv 2006 thiab 2008 revolutionary powers endeavored coj lub capital los ntawm hwj chim, tsis tau nyob rau hauv ob txheej xwm fizzled. Ib tug nkag siab txog ntawm lub reclamation ntawm amicability cov Chad thiab Sudan, cim 15 Lub ib hlis ntuj 2010, denoted lub finish ntawm ib tug tsib-xyoo tsov rog. Tus kho nyob rau hauv kev sib raug zoo sim hawm caij nyoog lub Chadian radicals los ntawm Sudan rov qab los tsev, qhib ntawm lub outskirt nruab nrab ntawm ob haiv neeg nram qab no xya xyoo ntawm xaus, thiab lub koom haum ntawm ib tug sib koom hwj chim kom paub tseeb lub fringe. Nyob rau hauv Tej zaum 2013, kev ruaj ntseg powers nyob rau hauv Chad thwarted ib overthrow tiv thaiv Thawj Tswj Hwm Idriss Deby uas tau nyob rau hauv anticipation ntawm ib tug thaum.

Chad yog tam sim no ib tug ntawm lub ntsiab accomplices nyob rau hauv ib tug West African alliance nyob rau hauv lub sib ntaus sib tua tiv thaiv Boko Haram Chad tau zoo li no lawm incorporated rau cov Medal Lus tshaj tawm 9645, lub ncua rendition ntawm United States Thawj Tswj Hwm Donald Trump tus Executive Order 13780, uas confines zaj los ntawm nationals los ntawm 8 haiv neeg, xws li Chad, mus rau hauv lub US. Qhov no txav tau incensed lub Chadian tsoom fwv.

h3 txog posts:

 

Independence hnub ntawm Kauslim
Independence hnub ntawm Kauslim
Independence hnub ntawm Kauslim

Lub teb chaws Liberation hnub ntawm Kauslim yog ib tug nyiaj so koobtsheej lom txhua txhua xyoo nyob rau hauv Lub yim hli ntuj 15 nyob rau hauv ob qho tib si North thiab South Kauslim. Nws hwm yeej tshaj Nyiv hnub, thaum lub U.S. dab tsi yog ntau, Soviet powers tas lub xyoo lawm-ntev Japanese tswj ntawm Kauslim. Nws yog eminent rau ua lub ntsiab Korean qhib nyiaj so koobtsheej lom los ntawm ob North thiab South Kauslim.

 

Keeb kwm keeb kwm yav dhau

Nyob rau hauv South Kauslim, nws yog lub npe hu ua Gwangbokjeol (liberation hnub; tiag tiag, “lub hnub lub teeb rov qab”), thiab yog ib tug ntawm cov qhib hnub caiv nyob rau hauv South Kauslim. Nyob rau hauv North Kauslim, nws yog lub npe hu ua Chogukhaebangŭi ib txhis (Lub Fatherland Liberation hnub; tiag tiag Liberation ntawm lub Fatherland Hnub) thiab yog zoo li no ib tug ntawm cov qhib hnub caiv nyob rau hauv North Kauslim.

Independence hnub ntawm Kauslim
Independence hnub ntawm Kauslim

Keeb kwm

Tom qab lub Korean ceg av qab teb twb dim ntawm tus phoojywg nyob rau hauv 1945, autonomous Korean tsoom fwv twb tau peb lub xyoo tom qab lub fact, rau Lub yim hli ntuj 15, 1948, thaum txog tus ntse heev U.S. Syngman Rhee raug xaiv Thawj Tswj Hwm ntawm South Kauslim thiab kev Soviet Kim Il-Sung tau ua tus thawj coj ntawm North Kauslim. Gwangbokjeol twb authoritatively muab ib qho qhib nyiaj so koobtsheej rau Lub kaum hli ntuj 1, 1949, nyob rau hauv South Kauslim thiab yog lub npe hu ua Chogukhaebangŭi ib txhis (Lub Fatherland Liberation hnub; ua tau “Txoj kev ywj pheej ntawm Fatherland Hnub”) nyob rau hauv North Kauslim.

Lub keeb kwm backdrop ntawm South Kauslim teb pib nrog nws lub hauv paus rau 15 Lub yim hli ntuj 1948.

Kauslim twb authoritatively apportioned nyob rau hauv 1945, mus rau lub finish ntawm lub ntiaj teb no ua tsov ua rog II. Raws li Kauslim yog nyob rau hauv Japanese ntsiab cai thaum lub sij hawm ua tsov ua rog II lub ntiaj teb no, Kauslim yog thawm xyoo ib tug hostile tiv thaiv cov phoojywg los ntawm tu ua A Japanese cheeb tsam. Cov tsis muaj kev txwv muab los ntawm teb chaws Nyiv Pooj sim hawm caij nyoog lub division ntawm Kauslim mus rau hauv ob txoj hauj lwm aav (ib yam li cov plaub aav nyob rau hauv lub teb chaws Yelemees), nrog rau lub tebchaws United States tswj lub yav qab teb feem ntawm lub promontory thiab lub Soviet Union regulating lub teb chaws qaum teb ntawm lub 38th thaum uas tig mus. Qhov no division twb npaj yuav impermanent (raws li yog nyob rau hauv lub teb chaws Yelemees) thiab yog thawj zaug yuav tsum tau los ib tug ua txhua yam ua ke Kauslim rov qab mus rau nws cov kwvtij tom qab lub tebchaws United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, thiab cov koom pheej ntawm Tuam Tshoj yuav mastermind ib leeg tsoom fwv rau lub promontory.

Lub ob gatherings twb tsis tau swb mus rau lub tua ntawm Joint Trusteeship tshaj Kauslim. Qhov no tsav tsheb nyob rau hauv 1948 rau lub hauv paus ntawm nyias tsoom fwv - cov Communist-tom ywj pheej neeg lub koom pheej ntawm Kauslim (DPRK) thiab sab hnub poob-tom ntej no koom pheej ntawm Kauslim - txhua professing mus yuav tus ncaj ncees koom haum nom tswv ntawm tag nrho cov ntawm Kauslim. Nyob rau lub rau hli ntuj 25, 1950, lub Korean ua tsov ua rog tsoo tawm. Tom qab ntau npaum li cas decimation, tsov rog tas rau Lub Xya hli ntuj 27, 1953, nrog rau cov 1948 ua lag ua luam, raws li ib txwm, raug reestablished, raws li tej nuj nqis cov DPRK tsis Thawj koom pheej yuav tsum tau them nrog regards rau vanquishing rau lwm tus ib feem ntawm cais Kauslim. Lub promontory twb partitioned los ntawm cov Korean Demilitarized Zone thiab ob cais tsoom fwv tswm rau hauv lub tam sim no nom tswv tshuaj ntawm North thiab South Kauslim.

South Kauslim lub consequent keeb kwm yog tsa los ntawm sib lub sij hawm ntawm feem ntau txoj cai thiab despotic raws li kev cai. Nonmilitary neeg tseem fwv routinely suav los ntawm Thawj koom pheej ntawm Rhee Syngman rau cov kawm Sixth koom pheej. Thawj koom pheej, Thaj chaw raws li nyob rau hauv nws commencement, muab tau progressively despotic kom txog rau thaum nws rhuav tshem nyob rau hauv 1960. Lub Ob txhais koom pheej yog nrees feem ntau txoj cai, tsis tau twb ousted nyob rau hauv nyob rau hauv ib lub xyoo thiab supplanted los ntawm ib tug imperious tub rog system. lub Peb, Plaub, thiab Fifth republics twb ostensibly chaw raws li, Txawm li cas los, lawv Benefit saib raws li lub continuation ntawm cov tub rog yeej. Nrog lub Sixth koom pheej, lub teb chaws tau cov kauj ruam yog kauj ruam balanced tawm mus rau hauv ib tug tsis nrug feem ntau cov kev cai system.

Txij thaum nws cov commencement, South Kauslim tau pom lub siab dawb siab txoj kev txhim kho nyob rau hauv kev kawm, kev khwv nyiaj txiag, thiab kab lis kev cai. Txij li thaum 1960, lub teb chaws tau tsim los ntawm ib tug Asia tsawg kawg muaj hmoo rau ib qho ntawm lub ntiaj teb no tus wealthiest lub teb chaws. Instruction, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog nyob rau tertiary theem, tau ncua ho. Nws yog hais tias yuav tsum yog ib ntawm cov “plaub tsov” ntawm microscopic Neeg Esxias xeev alongside Singapore, Taiwan, thiab Hong Kong.

North Kauslim

Independence hnub ntawm Kauslim
Independence hnub ntawm Kauslim

North Kauslim nyob rau hauv tam sim no praises no nyiaj so koobtsheej alongside South Kauslim. Txoj kev ywj pheej hnub yog lub ntsiab Korean nyiaj so koobtsheej uas yog qhuas los ntawm ob haiv neeg. Nyob rau hauv North Kauslim, nws yog zoo tib yam los mus npaj weddings nyob rau hnub caiv.

Nyob rau 5 Lub yim hli ntuj 2015, lub North Korean tsoom fwv xaiv rov qab los rau UTC + 08:30, haib 15 Lub yim hli ntuj 2015, thiab hais tias cov nom lub npe yuav Pyongyang sij hawm los yog (PYT). Lub koom haum nom tswv ntawm North Kauslim tswm rau qhov kev xaiv raws li ib tug tawg ntawm 'tsoom fwv'; lub sij hawm tsam hloov los ua zoo rau tus 70th koobtsheej uas nco txog txoj kev ywj pheej ntawm Kauslim.

Lub keeb kwm backdrop ntawm North Kauslim pib mus rau qhov finish ntawm lub ntiaj teb no ua tsov ua rog II nyob rau hauv 1945. Cov muab los ntawm teb chaws Nyiv Pooj sim hawm caij nyoog lub division ntawm Kauslim nyob rau 38th thaum uas tig mus, nrog lub Soviet Union muaj lub sab qaum teb, thiab hauv lub tebchaws United States nrog tus sab qab teb. Lub Soviet Union thiab lub tebchaws United States tsis saib tsis xyuas rau concede rau ib tug mus kom ze rau coj ua ke hauv lub teb chaws, thiab nyob rau hauv 1948 lawv ua tau ob tug cais tsoom fwv - lub Soviet-tom ywj pheej neeg lub koom pheej ntawm Kauslim thiab lub Western-tom koom pheej ntawm Kauslim - txhua professing mus yuav tus ncaj ncees koom haum nom tswv ntawm tag nrho cov ntawm Kauslim.

Nyob rau hauv 1950 lub Korean ua tsov ua rog tsoo tawm. Tom qab ntau npaum li cas pulverization, tsov rog tas nrog ib tug stalemate. Lub division ntawm lub 38th thaum uas tig mus yog supplanted los ntawm cov Korean Demilitarized Zone. Lub lim ntawm qhov sib txawv sab proceeded. Tawm ntawm lub rubble, Sab qaum teb Kauslim tuaj txoos ua ke ib industrialized kev taw qhia kev khwv nyiaj txiag.

Kim Il-Sung tsav North Kauslim kom txog rau thaum nws dhau nyob rau hauv 1994. Nws ua tau ib tug leej twg dim tau cim clique thiab tswj lub teb chaws nyob rau hauv ib tug dawb kawg raws li ib lub yeej ntawm Juche (cog qoob loo). Notwithstanding, nrog catastrophic txheej xwm thiab lub neej puas lub Soviet Bloc nyob rau hauv 1991, North Kauslim mus rau hauv ib tug huab monetary thaum muaj xwm ceev. Kim Il-hu tus me nyuam, Kim Jong-il, ua tau zoo rau nws thiab twb thusly prevailing los ntawm nws tus me nyuam, Kim Jong-un. Amid thoob ntiaj teb ceev faj, Sab qaum teb Kauslim yog tsim atomic rockets. Nyob rau hauv 2018, Kim Jong-un ua ib tug ceev kev sib raug zoo suggestion ntawm South Kauslim thiab lub tebchaws United States.

South Kauslim

Nyiaj so koobtsheej

Nyob rau hauv South Kauslim, heev heev ce thiab lub sij hawm ntawd tshwm sim nyob rau cov nyiaj so koobtsheej, xws li ib tug hauj lwm kev pab cuam mus rau los ntawm cov thawj coj ntawm lub koom pheej yog thaum lub Independence Hall ntawm Kauslim nyob rau hauv Cheonan los yog nyob rau hauv lub Sejong Center rau cov Performing Arts.

Tag nrho cov lug thiab tsev yog hais tias qhia cov South Korean lub teb chaws banner Taegukgi. Tsis heev dua lwm yam yog feem ntau qhib keeb kwm chaw zov me nyuam thiab qhov chaw qhib rau tsis muaj dab tsi tawm ntawm lub hnab tshos mus rau lub txheeb ze ntawm kev ywj pheej activists rau cov nyiaj so koobtsheej, Txawm li cas los, lawv yuav zoo li no mus rau ob qho tib si qhib tsheb thiab Intercity npaj rau tsis muaj dab tsi.

Independence hnub ntawm Kauslim
Independence hnub ntawm Kauslim

Txoj cai “gwangbokjeol suab paj nruag” (Jail songs) yog hu nyob rau txoj cai kev pab. Lub tune tus verses tau muaj li ntawm Jeong Inbo (Jeonginbo) thiab lub suab nkauj los ntawm Yoon Yongha (Yunyongha).

Lub koom haum saib xyuas customarily teeb meem mas tsis tshua exculpates rau Gwangbokjeol.

Nyob rau hauv 1974, Yuk Hluas-SOO, Ua ntej pojniam ntawm South Kauslim thiab lub neej tus khub tiaj chaw ua si Chung-Hee, raug tua los ntawm Mun Se-laib nyob rau lub teb chaws ua yeeb yam ntawm Kauslim nyob rau hauv Seoul thaum lub sij hawm ib tug Gwangbokjeol kev pab cuam.

Pop kab lis kev cai

Lub Ncov yog txwv tsis pub paub li lub neej ntawm Lee Youk-sa, lub Poet uas embraced ntu, featuring Kim Dong-Yeej ntawm boyband Shinhwa yog ib tug ob-seem tsis tshua muaj tshwm qhia communicates rau MBC kom paub txog Gwangbokjeol. Nws yog nyob rau hauv lub neej ntawm artist thiab kev ywj pheej lobbyist, Lee Youk-sa, uas nyob thaum lub sij hawm lub Japanese Colonial sij hawm thiab ncaws tawm hauv lub thoob nyob rau hauv tsev kaw neeg ntawm 40 deserting qhov chaw nyob rau hauv lub chav 40 khoom ntawm nqe.

Independence hnub ntawm Kauslim
Independence hnub ntawm Kauslim

Qhov thib peb qhia tau tias version ntawm Park Gyeong-ni tus epic tshiab Toji (ua tau “Cov av”), yog ib tug 52-scene chronicled dramatization uas qhia tawm los ntawm 27 Kaum ib hlis 2004 rau 22 Tej zaum 2005, twb tshwm los ntawm South Korean telecaster SBS raws li remembrance ntawm cov 60th koobtsheej uas nco txog Gwangbokjeol; thiab lub ntsiab dramatization txhais tom qab txhua txhua ib ntawm cov 21 tagnrho los lawm.

h3 txog posts:

Independence hnub lub Central African koom pheej
Independence hnub lub Central African koom pheej
Independence hnub lub Central African koom pheej

Lub focal African koom pheej, landlocked lub teb chaws nyob rau hauv lub focal point ntawm teb chaws Africa. Lub cheeb tsam uas yog tam sim no lub Central African koom pheej tau pom tau zoo los nyob rau hauv tej kev tshwm sim 8,000 xyoo. Qhov tseem raws sijhawm neeg yog cov yuav predecessors rau tam sim no aka (Pygmy) neeg pawg, uas nyob rau hauv lub sab hnub poob thiab sab qab teb forested cheeb tsam tsev ntawm lub teb chaws. Tus qhev xeev ntawm Dar al-Kuti koom tes nrog cov sab qaum teb yog hom twg kom txog thaum lub cheeb tsam sib txawv ntawm cov Central African koom pheej coj nyob rau hauv Fabkis lub xeev tus qauv lig nyob rau hauv lub puas tawm xyoo dhau. Provincial hau txhawb ib co haiv neeg gatherings tshaj lwm leej lwm tus, nqa txog kev nom kev tswv kev sib tw uas tseem tom qab txoj kev ywj pheej nyob rau hauv 1960. Tom qab lub sij hawm ntawm ntau teeb meem thiab tyrannical tsoom fwv, nrog rau cov hais tsis zoo system ntawm lub thiaj li hu ua huab tais Bokassa kuv (uas renamed lub teb chaws lub Central African faj tim teb chaws), lub teb chaws teem tawm nyob rau hauv ib chav kawm ntawm feem ntau cov kev cai uas tau nyom, mus rau ntawm finish ntawm lub thib nees nkaum xyoo pua, los ntawm interethnic ntau tsov rog nyob rau hauv neighboring haiv neeg cia li los ntawm endeavored overthrows d'état. Nws sab sab ntawm kev sib raug kev kub ntxhov thiab tsiv loyalties cov battling Cheebtsam ntawm lub hwj chim ntsis-sab saum toj, lub teb chaws cov pej xeem hais ib co lus ib lub xeev adage, “Thaum ntxhw sib ntaus sib tua, cov nyom endures; thaum ntxhw ua hlub, cov nyom tseem ua siab ntev.”

Lub capital nroog ntawm Bangui, tsim raws li ib tug Fabkis txoj sib post-1889, kis ntawm tus ntug dej ntawm lub Ubangi dej. Lom nyob rau hauv lub xeev zaus raws li ib tug ntawm cov feem ntau qab ntxiag cheeb tsam nroog nyob rau hauv central Africa, Bangui hmoov sib tov lush slopes thiab ntsuab knolls nrog quaj tawv heev populated shantytowns, ib tug txaus nyiam, yog hais tias tam sim no rau ib co degree xa ua dab tsi hauv plawv nroog cheeb tsam thiab tam sim no ntiav chaw. Txawm tias ntaus thiab curfews nquag nqa lub nroog mus rau ib tug nres, Bangui siab tus nquag nightlife thiab ib tug txawv kab lis kev cai melodic.

Av

Independence hnub lub Central African koom pheej
Independence hnub lub Central African koom pheej

Cov Central African koom pheej yog feem ntau qhov luaj li cas ntawm Fabkis thiab yog flanked los ntawm Chad mus rau sab qaum teb, Sudan thiab South Sudan mus rau sab qaum teb thiab sab hnub tuaj, lub koom pheej ywj pheej ntawm cov Congo (Kinshasa) thiab cov koom pheej ntawm cov Congo (Brazzaville) mus rau sab qab teb, thiab Cameroon mus rau sab hnub poob. lub capital, Bangui, yog cov txheej txheem ntawm nyob rau hauv lub yav qab teb tsis pub tshaj, zoo li tus los ntawm cov Ubangi dej, ib tug tributary ntawm tus hav dej Congo.

pab, pov tseg, thiab xau

Cov Central African koom pheej muaj ib tug gigantic mus theem uas ntas, raws li ib ncov hais tias cov qauv southwest rau sab sauv sab hnub tuaj, qhov tiag pov tseg muab faib nruab nrab ntawm lub pas dej Chad thiab Congo dej tais. Lub teb chaws yog heev npaum li cas muab conduits. Tributaries ntawm lub Chari dej koom nrog sab qaum teb feem peb ntawm lub teb chaws tus sau. Cov nyob 66% ntawm lub chaw uas zoo heev depletes southward mus rau hauv lub Ubangi dej, uas lug lub Central African koom pheej lub yav qab teb fringe nrog Congo (Kinshasa).

Cov loj loj focal teb sawv maj mam nyob rau hauv lub qaum sab hnub tuaj mus rau lub bongos (bongo) massif, ncab tawm mus rau ib tug sawv ntawm 4,360 taw (1,330 meters) ntawm Mount Toussoro, thiab lub Tondo Massif nyob rau hauv lub sab hnub tuaj. Nyob rau hauv lub sab hnub poob lawv tshoom mus rau lub siab pob zeb uas muaj lub Karre Toj siab, tau raws li luag 4,625 taw (1,410 meters) ntawm Mount Ngaoui, lub teb chaws tus feem ntau noteworthy point, ua ntej koos eastbound rau hauv sandstone theem. Nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb, lub feem ntau noteworthy roob yog cov uas tus Dar Challa khiav, uas tshoom rau 4,350 taw (1,326 meters) ntawm Mount Ngaya nyob ze rau qhov outskirt nrog Sudan. Nyob rau hauv sab qab teb yog ib tug dawb txiav los ntawm ntau yam ntws.

cua

Ib tug ntub savanna cua yeej nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb thiab ib tug central zoov tsam nyob rau hauv sab qab teb. Thaum lub sij hawm tsaus ntuj nti rau lub caij (los ntawm Lub peb hlis ntuj Lub kaum hli ntuj los yog lub kaum ib hlis) ntau yam pauv loj rainstorms tshwm sim suab hnub los ntawm hnub, thiab thaum ntxov thaum sawv ntxov pos huab yog ib txwm. Feem ntau cov huab txhua xyoo nag lossis daus yog 71 nti (1,800 hli), tshwm sim los ntawm Lub yim hli ntuj mus rau lub Cuaj hlis rau hauv lub Upper Ubangi chaw, thiab nyob rau hauv lub Karre Toj siab txhua xyoo los nag midpoints 59 nti (1,500 hli). Thaum lub sij hawm no lub sij hawm ntawm southwestern cua daj cua dub (downpour kabmob) cua, lub txhua hnub kub sau qhov chaw nyob rau hauv lub chav 66 thiab 86 ° F (19 thiab 30 ° C).

Lub caij ntuj qhuav-coj los ntawm tus northeastern pauv cua, hu ua lub harmattan-by thiab loj pib nyob rau hauv Lub kaum hli ntuj thiab finishes nyob rau hauv Lub ob hlis ntuj Lub peb hlis ntuj los yog. Cov huab cua yog qhuav, kub thiab txias khiav qhov chaw nyob rau hauv lub chav 64 thiab 104 ° F (18 thiab 40 ° C); nws yog sov thaum lub sij hawm hnub tsis tau ho txias nyob ib ncig ntawm yav tsaus ntuj lub sij hawm. Lub skies yog feem ntau ntshiab. Plua plav los nag thiab residue tempests tshwm sim nyob rau hauv lub extraordinary sab qaum teb.

Nroj tsuag thiab tsiaj lub neej

Independence hnub lub Central African koom pheej
Independence hnub lub Central African koom pheej

Lub teb chaws dag rau ib tug twg zoo kawg thiab nyob rau hauv lub savanna cheeb tsam ntawm teb chaws Africa. Lub sab qaum teb yog ib feem yog treeless, tab sis yog rau yav qab teb ya ntawm lub teb chaws muaj tuab tauj rainforests, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog raws Ubangi thiab Sangha waterways. Ib tug dav uas duav txhua yam ntawm cov nroj tsuag muaj peev xwm yuav nrhiav tau nyob rau hauv lub savannas, los ntawm ib tug tsis txaus, qhuav spell thiab fireproof ntoo thiab fab mus nce lush zaub pem hav zoov ze waterways thiab ntws.

Heev heev hom gazelle, cia li raws li liab, qus twm, thiab ntxhw, yog pom nyob rau hauv lub savannas; muaj ntxiv Woodland ntxhw, uas yog littler tshaj li cov neeg nyob rau hauv lub savanna. Thaum-ntau yam tsaus ntuj nti rhinoceroses uas tam sim no tsis tshua muaj tshwm, lub casualties ntawm overhunting. Nyob rau hauv lub rainforests, ib tug ho ntau noteworthy assorted ntau yam ntawm untamed lub neej tshwm sim, xws li gorillas, chimpanzees, thiab txawv liab, Panthers, thiab lub jeopardized bongo eland. Waterways muaj heev heev hom ntses, crocodiles, thiab hippopotamuses. Ib tug nplua nuj thiab hloov birdlife-txawm heev heev assortments ntawm snakes, puav, thiab kab, xws li heev heev kaj butterflies thiab npaub-ua rau lub cheeb tsam zoologically ib qho ntawm feem kev nyob rau hauv teb chaws Africa.

Muaj ob peb lub teb chaws chaw ua si thiab untamed lub neej tuas, xws li Bamingui-Bangoran National Park nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb, Manolo-Gouda-St. Floris National Park (lub ntiaj teb cuab yeej cuab tam site txij li thaum 1988) rau hauv lub Upper sab hnub tuaj, Zemongo faunal Reserve nyob rau hauv lub sab hnub tuaj, thiab Dzanga-Ndoki National Park thiab Dzanga-Sangha Tshwj xeeb Tuab hav zoov cia, ob qho tib si nyob rau hauv lub southwest.

Cov tib neeg

Watchmen Keeb kwm

Lub focal African koom pheej

Lub focal African koom pheej

banner ntawm cov Central African koom pheej

Lub teb chaws zaj nkauj qhuas ntawm lub Central African koom pheej

Authority LUB NPE

Central African koom pheej (Central African koom pheej)

Hom NTAWM TSOOM FWV

ib tug multiparty koom pheej nrog ib tug ntawv pov tsev (National Assembly [140])1

LUB TAUB HAU NTAWM LUB XEEV

Thawj Tswj Hwm: Faustin-Archange Touadéra

LUB TAUB HAU NTAWM TSOOM FWV

Lub taub hau neeg khiav dej num: Firmin Ngrébada

LOJ

Bangui

NTAUB LANGUAGES

Independence hnub lub Central African koom pheej
Independence hnub lub Central African koom pheej

Fabkis; Sango

NTAUB kev cai dab qhuas

tsis muaj leej twg

Kaum Ob Lub Hlis UNIT

CFA franc (CFAF)

pej xeem

(2018 yog.) 4,737,000

pej xeem nyob qib

(2018) 123

pej xeem projection 2030

6,124,000

tsis CHEEB TSAM (sq mi)

240,324

tsis CHEEB TSAM (sq KM)

622,436

thickness: NEEG IB sq ntawm lub npe nruab nrab

(2018) 19.7

thickness: NEEG IB sq KM

(2018) 7.6

NROOG-Nyob deb nroog cov pejxeem

Huv: (2018) 41.4%

Lub teb chaws: (2018) 58.6%

Yav tom ntej AT YUG

Txiv neej: (2017) 51.4 xyoo

Poj niam: (2017) 54.2 xyoo

Kev Kawm Ntawv: Feem pua ​​ntawm cov pejxeem HNUB NYOOG 15 THIAB DUA literate

Txiv neej: (2015) 50.7%

Poj niam: (2015) 24.4%

GNI (U.S. $ ‘000,000)

(2017) 1,805

GNI ib capita (U.S. $)

(2017) 390

1Tom qab ib tug revolutionary nres lawm nyob rau hauv qhov qaug dab peg ntawm lub capital rau Lub peb hlis ntuj 24, 2013, tus thawj tswj hwm khiav lub teb chaws, cov kevcai tswj tau tshem tawm, thiab lub teb chaws los ua ke twb tawg down. Ib tug ntawm lub sij hawm lub koom haum twb qhia nyob rau lub yim hli ntuj 18, 2013. Ib tug haum xaiv tus thawj tswj hwm tau qhia nyob rau Lub peb hlis ntuj 30, 2016, thiab lwm thawj lub npe hu ua nyob rau hnub tim 2.

Tsheb thauj mus los thiab kev sib txuas lus xov xwm

Independence hnub lub Central African koom pheej
Independence hnub lub Central African koom pheej

Muaj tsis muaj tam sim ntawd nkag mus rau lub hiav txwv, tsis muaj kev tsheb ciav hlau, thiab cia li nyob ib ncig ntawm 400 mais (600 km) ntawm tshem txoj kev, tsiv khoom thiab cov neeg yog heev puab. Ib txhia ua lag ua luam mus raws unpaved txoj kev, tsis tau lub teb chaws nyob rau conduits (lub Ubangi thiab txawv waterways) rau xov xwm thiab cov lag luam tawm. Nyob ib ncig ntawm tsib-sevenths ntawm lub ntiaj teb no pauv yog xa los ntawm waterway. Muaj nyob ib ncig ntawm 4,400 mais (7,000 km) ntawm dej conduits, Txawm li cas los, cia li ib co ob-fifths ntawm cov muaj kev ruaj ntseg. Lub Ubangi-center Congo Hoob no yog lub zoo tib yam universal tsheb thauj mus los txuas nrog rau lub ntiaj teb sab nraum. Hoob no yog traversable feem coob ntawm cov lub xyoo los ntawm Bangui rau Brazzaville, Congo, thiab los ntawm point, khoom muag yog thauj los ntawm kev tsheb nqaj hlau mus Congo lub Atlantic chaw nres nkoj ntawm Pointe-Noire.

Lub ntsiab ntiaj teb no huab cua davhlau ya nyob twg yog nyob Bangui-Mpoko. Muaj ob peb lub xeev lub dav hlau terminals thiab heev heev txawv airstrips, albeit sab hauv administrations yog unpredictable, contingent li ib tug problematic mov ntawm lub davhlau roj.

Ib tug private tshaj tawm hauv xov sib txuas lus koom haum presently sau ib lub zos Internet thiab email thawj coj. Tsis yog tej yam Central Africans muaj tsev nkag tau mus rau tej administrations, Txawm li cas los, heev heev huv xauj tau txwv kev nkag tau mus rau ntawm cov bistros.

Tsoom fwv Thiab Society

Watchmen Keeb kwm

Muaj feem xyuam xai

Cov kev cai lij choj raws li Koom pheej uas tus Congo

Chari dej

Koom pheej uas tus Congo

Ouham dej

Boumbé II dej

Ubangi dej

Banner ntawm lub Central African koom pheej

Cameroon

Kav lub Kuj Army

Kotto dej

dawb huv system

Independence hnub lub Central African koom pheej
Independence hnub lub Central African koom pheej

Cov 1995 cov kevcai tswj tau tshem tawm nyob rau hauv 2003, tom qab ib tug tub rog overthrow. Nyob rau hauv lwm cov kevcai tswj hais tias nyob rau hauv lig 2004, tus thawj tswj hwm yog lub taub hau ntawm lub xeev thiab txwv rau ob nruam tsib-xyoo lub ntsiab lus. Cov kevcai tswj ntxiv accommodates ib tug PM, ib tug ua ke ntawm clergymen, thiab ib tug 105-ib feem National Assembly. Mus ua ke tib neeg yuav xaiv los ntawm tag nrho cov-inclusive suffrage rau tsib-xyoo lub ntsiab lus. Ib tug nyiaj txiag thiab hwv board thiab ib lub xeev pawg neeg ntuas kom cov sib sau ua ke. Nyob rau hauv Lub ib hlis ntuj 2013 ib tug agitator alliance thiab cov koom haum saib xyuas kos npe tso cai rau ib lub hwj chim-sib koom kev kho, tsis tau nyob rau hauv lub peb hlis ntuj lub radicals nyob rau kev tswj thiab tus thawj tswj hwm khiav lub teb chaws. Cov 2004 cov kevcai tswj yog raws cov kab tshem tawm, thiab tsoom fwv cov me nyuam yaus twb tawg mus. Ib tug so lub koom haum twb tau thiab liam ntawm reestablishing thov kom lub teb chaws thiab npaj haiv neeg. Lwm cov kevcai tswj tau dhau siv cov cuav nyob rau hauv 2015 thiab pom zoo nyob rau hauv 2016. Lub luv lub koom haum muab lub peev xwm rau ib tug justly xaiv tsoom fwv nyob rau hauv 2016.

Nyob rau hauv lub 2015 cov kevcai tswj, tus thawj tswj hwm yog lub taub hau ntawm lub xeev thiab txwv rau ob successive tsib-xyoo lub ntsiab lus. lub PM, lub taub hau ntawm tsoom fwv, yog xaiv los ntawm tus thawj tswj hwm. Cov kevcai tswj accommodates ib tug bicameral lawmaking lub cev, muaj ntawm lub National Assembly thiab ib tug Senate, txawm hais tias lub xeem lub cev twb tsis kom sai ua.

Nyob ze tsoom fwv thiab kev ncaj ncees

Lub teb chaws yog sib cais mus rau hauv 14 prefectures, ob prefectures-economic, thiab ib tug collective. Ib tug dawb ceev tsev hais plaub muaj ntawm tsev hais plaub los rau cuaj-xyoo ntsiab lus uas; nws yuav pab kom cov Supreme Court thiab lub High Tsev Hais Plaub Kev Ncaj Ncees. Muaj zoo li no cov tsev hais plaub ntawm daim ntawv thov, criminal cov tsev hais plaub, ib tug ob peb sab pawg sab laj, thiab ib tug tub rog lub tsev hais plaub. Cov kev cai lij choj lub moj khaum yog inexactly nrhiav tau nyob rau hauv uas ntawm Fabkis, nrog ib co kev cai uas tsev hais plaub raws li tau ua hauj lwm rau cov neeg zej zog (subprefecture) theem.

Nom tswv txoj kev

Independence hnub lub Central African koom pheej
Independence hnub lub Central African koom pheej

Cov Social Evolution Zog ntawm dub Africa (Social Evolution Zog ntawm dub Africa; MESAN), tsim nyob rau hauv 1946 los ntawm Barthelemy Bogart, yog tus thawj tswj tsev kawm ideological pab pawg neeg. Nws yeej tswj ntawm tus thawj xib fwb regional sib sau ua ke nyob rau hauv kev txiav txim siab 1957 thiab yog tus sib sau ua ke ntawm cov thawj tus thawj tswj hwm, David Dacko. Dacko authoritatively abrogated tag nrho cov rooj sib txoos ib sab ntawm MESAN nyob rau hauv Kaum ib hlis 1962, thiab lawv twb tsis tso cai nyob ua ib ke dua kom txog rau thaum 1991. Lub Liberation Movement ntawm lub Central African neeg (Zog rau lub Liberation ntawm lub Central neeg; MLPC) thiab lub Central African koom pheej ywj Rally (Central African koom pheej ywj Rally) tau framed nyob rau hauv lub xyoo. Los ntawm tus taw tes rau pem hauv ntej heev heev txawv gatherings tau zoo li tus, nrog rau cov teb chaws Union rau kev cai ywj pheej thiab kev kawm (National Union rau kev cai ywj pheej thiab kev kawm; UNDP), lub Central African Union rau rov (Central African Union rau rov; URCA), thiab lub teb chaws sib, Txwv tsis pub hu ua Nyob rau Thiab Nyob (“Ua hauj lwm, tsuas yog ua hauj lwm”; knk).

Txawm tias lub teb chaws tus tseeb constitutions tau accommodated ntau suffrage, nyob rau hauv nruab nrab xyoo pua 21st cia li nyob ib ncig ntawm ib feem kaum ntawm cov neeg los ntawm lub National Assembly nyob poj niam. Nyob rau hauv txhua rooj plaub, Elizabeth Domitien, ib tug vam meej businessperson, loj mus rau kab sub-Saharan Africa tus thawj poj niam thawj thaum nws tau xaiv rau qhov teeb meem no los ntawm Jean-Bédel Bokassa nyob rau hauv 1975.

h3 txog posts:

 

Independence Day of Jamaica
Independence Day of Jamaica
Independence Day of Jamaica

Lub Colony ntawm Jamaica khaws ywj pheej los ntawm lub tebchaws United Kingdom rau 6 Lub yim hli ntuj 1962. Nyob rau hauv Jamaica, hnub no yog commended li Independence hnub, ib lub teb chaws nyiaj so koobtsheej.

Keeb kwm ntawm Jamaica

Hauv paus txawm pib

Lub Caribbean kob presently lub npe hu ua Jamaica twb xub tswm ntawm lub Arawak thiab Taíno neeg pawg, uas pib nyob rau hauv nyob sib ze South America. Genoan wayfarer Christopher Columbus pom Jamaica nyob rau hauv 1494 thaum lub sij hawm nws ob voyage rau lub ntiaj teb tshiab thiab khav nws rau lub Crown ntawm Castile. Raws li ntawm tam sim no, ntau tshaj ob puas lub zos muaj nyob rau hauv Jamaica, mus rau ib tug twg zoo kawg thiab situated nyob rau hauv sab qab teb ntug dej hiav txwv thiab coj los ntawm caciques, los yog “lub taub hau ntawm zos”.

Mev txheem

Cov lus Mev faj tim teb chaws pib nws cov nom txheej txheem nyob rau hauv Jamaica nyob rau hauv 1509, nrog formal tswj ntawm cov kob los ntawm conquistador Juan de Esquivel thiab nws cov neeg. Cov Spaniards oppressed ib tug xov tooj tseem ceeb ntawm lub zos neeg, exhausting thiab ua phem rau lawv mus rau lub point hais tias muaj ntau tuag hauv tsib caug xyoo ntawm European tsaws. Nyob rau hauv no txoj kev, hauv lub qhaj ntawv ntawm hauv paus txawm ua hauj lwm twb tswm ntawm tau txais African qhev. Tag kev cia siab los ntawm qhov uas tsis muaj kub rau cov kob, lus Mev tseem zoo siv Jamaica li ib pab tub rog installation rau muab colonizing endeavors nyob rau hauv lub chaw uas zoo heev nyob rau hauv lub teb chaws Amelikas no.

Independence Day of Jamaica
Independence Day of Jamaica

English xeev

Tom qab 146 xyoo ntawm Spanish hauv paus ntsiab lus, ib tug lossis loj sib sau ua ke ntawm British mariners thiab warriors tuaj txog nyob rau hauv lub Kingston Chaw nres nkoj ntawm 10 Tej zaum 1655, thaum lub sij hawm Anglo-Mev ua tsov ua rog. Cov kawm lus Askiv, uas tau teem rau Jamaica tom qab shocking kev puas tsuaj nyob rau hauv ib tug yav dhau los endeavor coj cov kob ntawm Hispaniola, taug kev mus rau Villa tsib la Vega, lub ntxawg focal point ntawm cov kob. Mev powers muab tsis tuaj kawm ntawv ntau npaum li cas sib ntaus sib tua nyob rau hauv 11 Tej zaum, ib tug txiav txim ntau ntawm lawv escaping rau Mev Teb chaws Cuba los yog lub sab qaum teb yog ib feem ntawm cov kob.

English xeev purview tshaj cov kob tam sim ntawd tswm, nrog rau cov nyuam qhuav renamed Mev Hauv lub zos npe hu ua cov peev thiab lub tsev uas nyob ze lub tsev ntawm los ua ke, Jamaica lub legitimately xaiv lawmaking lub cev.

Uprisings thiab blending patriotism

Jamaican Maroons

Independence Day of Jamaica
Independence Day of Jamaica

Heev heev yav dhau los ua lus Mev qhev siv lub Anglo-Mev tsov rog raws li ib lub sij hawm mus rau dawb lawv tus kheej thiab khiav mus rau hauv tus mob rocky thiab forested qhov chaw ntawm lub xeev kom tuaj koom nrog lub chaw ntawm cov nyiaj ib puas tsav Tainos. Raws li lwm haiv neeg sib yuav muab tau amazingly ntau, lub ob haiv neeg gatherings tej haum. Cov tau txais tam sim qhev thiab lawv cov txheeb ze, lub npe hu ua lub Jamaican Maroons, yog cov wellspring heev heev unsettling influences nyob rau hauv lub xeev, taus manors thiab uas feem ntawm cov kob lub hauv. Txawv African qhev yuav tam sim no thiab dua tawm mus tsev rau Xim paj ntsha cheeb tsam, lub npe hu ua Cockpit Lub teb chaws. Nyob rau thawj zaug xya caum-rau xyoo ntawm British txheem, engagements ntawm Xim paj ntsha warriors thiab cov British tub rog los ua progressively qub, alongside uprisings los ntawm subjugated dub.

Cov sib cav sib ceg tas nyob rau hauv 1728 thaum thawj Xim paj ntsha ua tsov ua rog pib ntawm cov lus Askiv thiab Maroons. Yuav kom ib tug twg zoo kawg thiab attributable mus rau lub zoo defendable, tuab Woodland ntawm Cockpit Lub teb chaws, lub British twb ices nyob rau hauv vanquishing lub Maroons.[6] Tom qab ua dej ua num, lub Maroons tau conceded semi-kheej rau hauv lawv tsib txoj, nyob rau hauv ib lub British saib xyuas thiab lawv lub zos lub taub hau.

Nyob rau hauv 1795 Hom ntawm lub Maroons ntawm Cudjoe lub zos (Trelawny lub zos) thiab lub British tawm txim liab mus rau hauv lub Ob txhais Xim paj ntsha ua tsov ua rog. Lub sib cav sib ceg tas rau ib tug tsawg zoo lub sij hawm rau Maroons, nrog ib tug neeg phem stalemate kav cov kob rau tsib lub hlis. Ua raws li cov killings ntawm qub txeeg qub tes proprietors thiab lawv cov tsev neeg thiab cov sij hawm tuaj txog ntawm qhev los ntawm cov Maroons, Major-General George Walpole xav kom lub Maroons nyob rau hauv Trelawney Hauv lub zos los ntawm cov kev siv ntawm outfitted posts thiab yos hav zoov dev, thawb lawv rau kev sib raug zoo lees paub cov ntsiab lus mus rau qhov pib ntawm Lub ib hlis ntuj 1796. Es British triumph, lub Maroons muaj leej twg paub qhib dialogs nyob rau hauv lub peb hlis ntuj. Qhov no ncua tau siv raws li ib tug hlub kom muaj cov loj tsov ntxhuav feem ntawm lub Trelawney Maroons raug ntiab tawm mus Nova Scotia. Lawv tom qab tsiv mus rau Sierra Leone.

Independence Day of Jamaica
Independence Day of Jamaica

Garvey

Cev Qhev abrogated nyob rau hauv lub British faj tim teb chaws los ntawm lub qhev abolition Act nyob rau hauv 1834. Tom qab ib lub sij hawm ntawm extraordinary kev sib tham, lub zos thiab African masses ntawm Jamaica tau conceded lub cib fim rau cam khwb cia ib tug daim ntawv xaiv tsa; raws li lub puas tawm xyoo no tau muaj nrog lub koom haum saib xyuas enabled ib co ntawm lawv los tuav qhib chaw ua hauj lwm. Txawm li cas los ntawm cov tau, dawb neeg los ntawm Jamaican pioneer haiv neeg khaws cia rau tuav txoj hwj chim.

Thaum lub sij hawm tus thawj xib fwb ib nrab ntawm lub thib nees nkaum xyoo pua, lub feem ntau mas Dub pioneer yog Marcus Garvey, ib tug ua hauj lwm tus thawj coj thiab supporter dub patriotism. Garvey, raws li txwv mus upholding lub ywj pheej ntawm Jamaica thiab txawv xeev, tsa lub Back-to-Africa txoj kev loj hlob, uas hu ua rau txhua leej txhua ntawm African plummet rov qab los rau lub teb chaws ntawm lawv progenitors. Garvey, tsis muaj ntau npaum li cas ntawm tej kev tshwm sim, thov lub frontier tsoom fwv los mus txhim kho nyob tej yam kev mob rau hauv paus txawm cov neeg pawg nyob rau hauv lub sab hnub poob Indies. Tom qab rov qab los ntawm thoob ntiaj teb pheej hmmo ua mus, nws tsim lub Universal Negro Improvement Association thiab African zej zog League nyob rau hauv 1914, uas paub kev koob pheej ntawm lawv rau dub nyob rau hauv Jamaica thiab txawv teb chaws. Garvey tau txais kev pab ib tug tsib-xyoo lub tsev kaw neeg rau txim nyob rau Atlanta Federal Penitentiary rau swindling nyiaj txiag tshwj xeeb nyob rau hauv lub koom haum, nram qab no uas nws twb ousted rau Jamaica nyob rau hauv Kaum ib hlis 1927, nyob rau hauv lub wake ntawm muaj nws kab lus uas tau tsav los ntawm Thawj Tswj Hwm Calvin Coolidge. Nyob rau hauv lub wake ntawm los rov qab mus rau nws qhov chaw yug, Garvey sim thiab tsis saib tsis xyuas yuav tsum tau xaiv mus rau hauv lub qhib chaw ua hauj lwm. Qhov kawg kev puas tsuaj yog rho rau nws adherents los txog luv luv rau qhov zoo tshaj plaws tau pov ntawv xaiv tsa tuition. Nyob rau hauv cov kev phem ntawm cov inadequacies, Marcus Garvey yog saib raws li ib lub teb chaws dab neeg nyob rau hauv tam sim no-hnub Jamaica.

Independence Day of Jamaica
Independence Day of Jamaica

Sib sau ua ke PatientsÕ teeb meem

Cov ntsia hlau loj ntawm patriot kev soj ntsuam nyob rau hauv lub xeev Jamaica yog rho mus rau lub British West Indian ua hauj lwm ntxhov siab 1934-39, uas sib tw cov tu ncua ntawm nyiaj txiag cov hauv zos thiab British inhabitants ntawm lub British West Indies. Los ntawm cov kev tseem ceeb suppositions Alexander Bustamante, ib tug Dawb lub zos xeeb moneylender, sawv mus rau nom tswv unmistakable zoo thiab tsim cov Bustamante Industrial Trade Union. Bustamante txhawb nws tus kheej-sufficiency ntawm cov kob thiab ib qho kev nce sib npaug theem ntawm lub hwj. Nws ntes tau cov saib xyuas thiab esteem ntawm ntau tsaus Jamaican cov tub ntxhais hluas nrog nws zoo siab hais lus nyob rau hauv cov kev txaus siab ntawm Jamaican tshwj xeeb. Tom qab ib tug waterfront dissent nyob rau hauv lub Cuaj Hli Ntuj 1940, nws twb yuav los ntawm lub xeev ua hauj lwm thiab tseem tuav rau feem ntau ntawm cov ob xyoos.

Raws li Bustamante Industrial Trade Union khaws pab, ib tug npawg ntawm Alexander Bustamante tus, Norman Manley, tsim los pab cov neeg National Party (PNP), ib tug tej chaw raws li communist txoj kev loj hlob uas ntxiv thawb neeg ua hauj lwm lub guilds. Txawm tias Bustamante yog chiv ib tug tsim ib tug neeg los ntawm cov PNP, nws tshuav nws qhov teeb meem muaj nyob rau hauv 1939, xa mus rau nws communist propensities li “excessively radical.”

Nyob rau hauv Lub Xya hli ntuj 1943, Bustamante propelled lub Jamaica Labor Party (JLP), uas nws adversaries ignored li xwb ib tug nom tswv lub npe ntawm tus Bustamante Industrial Trade Union. Nyob rau hauv lub nrog haiv neeg, lub JLP vanquished lub PNP nrog ib tug noteworthy lead ntau tshaj tas los nyob rau hauv lub tsev ntawm Cov Neeg Sawv Cev.

Lub xyoo tom ntej no, lub JLP tsav lub tsoom fwv kom lwm cov kevcai tswj uas tau tso cai ntau zus-up suffrage, kho lub siab pov ntawv xaiv tsa nomtswv nrim teem los ntawm lub British. Cov kevcai tswj tshiab, uas tau ua txoj cai rau 20 Kaum ib hlis 1944, teem ib lub bicameral los ua ke thiab txheeb tawm ib tug Executive Council ua los ntawm kaum tus neeg los ntawm cov lawmaking lub cev thiab coj los ntawm tus nyuam qhuav ua hauj lwm ntawm Premier, lub taub hau ntawm tsoom fwv. Ib tug tswj kev cai moj khaum twb ntxiv tswm rau qhov no chamber.

Independence Day of Jamaica
Independence Day of Jamaica

Txoj kev mus rau Independence, 1945-62

Raws li lub ntiaj teb no ua tsov ua rog II pom ib cov lus xaus, lub sab txoj kev loj hlob ntawm decolonization surpassed lub ntiaj teb no. English tsoom fwv thiab zej zog legislators pib ntev kawm ntawm Jamaica los ntawm ib tug crown xeev mus rau hauv ib tug dawb lub xeev. Cov nom tswv scene twb kav los ntawm PNP thiab JLP, nrog qhov chaw ntawm kav lub cev sib ob txhais tes nruab nrab ntawm ob tag nrho cov los ntawm lub sijhawm xyoo 1950.

Tom qab Norman Manley raug xaiv Chief Minister nyob rau hauv 1955, nws ceev cov txheej txheem ntawm decolonization ua hauj lwm ib tug ob peb dawb huv alterations. Cov koos coj mus rau hauv tus account ntau noteworthy self-tsoom fwv thiab teem ib lub chaw khaws ntawm cov xibhwb nyob rau hauv lub Prime Minister ntawm Jamaica.

Nyob rau hauv Manley, Jamaica nkag mus hauv lub West Indies Federation, ib tug nom tswv koom haum ntawm pioneer Caribbean islands uas, yog hais tias nws yuav tsum tau ua siab ntev nyiaj, yuav tau koom kaum British lub xeev puav mus rau hauv ib tug keev xeeb, autonomous state. Jamaica tus txoj kev koom tes nyob rau hauv lub Federation yog tsis sib haum xeeb, thiab lub txim ntawm lub 1961 West Indies cuav nyob rau ntawm Premier Manley solidified lub xeev tus ntsoos ntsoos los ntawm lub koom haum nyob rau hauv 1962. Lub West Indies Federation crumbled ntev tom qab ntawd tom qab lub takeoff ntawm Trinidad thiab Tobago.

Independence

Independence Day of Jamaica

 

Nyob rau hauv lub haiv neeg ntawm 1962, lub JLP crushed tus PNP, nqa txog qhov microscopic ntawm Alexander Bustamante mus rau lub loj heev nyob rau hauv lub Plaub Hlis xyoo. Nyob rau 19 Lub Xya hli ntuj 1962, lub Parliament ntawm lub tebchaws United Kingdom dhau lub Jamaica Independence Act, muab kev ywj pheej pib rau 6 Lub yim hli ntuj nrog tus poj huab tais raws li lub taub hau ntawm lub xeev. Nyob rau hnub ntawd, lub Union Jack twb ritualistically coj down thiab supplanted los ntawm cov Jamaican banner tag nrho cov los ntawm lub teb chaws. Princess Margaret qhib lub ntsiab sib kho ntawm cov Parliament ntawm Jamaica rau cov kev pab ntawm tus poj huab tais. Tus thawj xib fwb Jamaica Independence Success twb muaj.

Bustamante muab rau hauv lub ntsiab Prime Minister ntawm Jamaica thiab koom lub tebchaws of Nations, ib lub koom haum ntawm ex-British cheeb tsam. Jamaica yuav mus ua ib tug tebchaws sau, nrog lub British kav, Elizabeth II, nyob raws li huab tais ntawm Jamaica thiab lub taub hau ntawm lub xeev.

Independence Day of Jamaica
Independence Day of Jamaica

Jamaica mus los ntawm nws cov thawj zaug kaum xyoo ntawm kev ywj pheej nyob rau hauv traditionalist tsoom fwv, nrog nws cov kev khwv nyiaj txiag muaj ceaseless txoj kev loj hlob. Yuav hais tias ua nws yuav, raws li nws twb tau tag nrho cov los ntawm ib tug heev me ntsis ntawm nws keeb kwm, free Jamaica twb quaj los kuamuag vim teeb meem ntawm cov chav kawm ntawv tsis txaus. Tom qab lub thoob ntiaj teb kev khwv nyiaj txiag tej lwj, lub radical PNP tuaj rov qab mus rau tswj tom qab lub 1972 kev txiav txim siab. Questionable monetary tej yam kev mob pained lub teb chaws zoo mus rau hauv lub 1980s.

Michael Manley, tus me nyuam ntawm Norman Manley, uas tsav tsheb zoo li cas yog mus rau ib tug twg zoo kawg thiab cov kuj tag nrho cov los ntawm lub advancement ntawm siv yooj yim Jamaica, proceeded tig mus rau hauv lub plaub Prime Minister ntawm Jamaica thiab khaws cia li cov neeg National Party tus raws li txoj cai raws li ib tug ntawm ob tug noteworthy kev nom kev tswv pab pawg ntawm lub teb chaws.

Frontier qub txeeg qub teg

Independence Day of Jamaica
Independence Day of Jamaica

Thaum muaj kev ywj pheej yog feem ntau ua kev zoo siab hauv Jamaican kab lis kev cai, nws tau muab rau hauv ib tug kawm ntawm kev sib tham. Nyob rau hauv 2011, ib tug txheej txheem cej luam pom hais tias roughly 60% ntawm Jamaicans “xam lub teb chaws yuav nyob rau hauv ib qho zoo tagnrho teeb meem niaj hnub no yog hais tias nws yog tseem nyob rau hauv British txheem”, xa mus rau ntev lub sij hawm ntawm kev sib raug zoo thiab ntsig txog blunder nyob rau hauv lub teb chaws.

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