Independence Day of Chad

Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad

Chad Arabic: Chad Tshād, Arabic articulation: [tʃaːd]; Fabkis: Chad, articulated [tʃa(d)]), authoritatively lub koom pheej ntawm Chad(Arabic: Koom pheej ntawm Chad Jumhūriyyat Tshād; Fabkis: Koom pheej ntawm Chad txaj. “Koom pheej uas tus Chad”), yog ib tug landlocked lub teb chaws nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb-focal Africa. Nws yog flanked los ntawm Libya mus rau sab qaum teb, Sudan mus rau sab hnub tuaj, lub Central African koom pheej mus rau sab qab teb, Cameroon thiab Nigeria mus rau lub southwest, thiab Niger mus rau sab hnub poob. Nws yog ib lub thib tsib biggest lub teb chaws nyob rau hauv teb chaws Africa thiab lub thib ob-loj tshaj nyob rau hauv Central teb chaws Africa txog hauv lub cheeb tsam. “lub Chadian” yog tus nom song ntawm lub siab ntawm Chad.

Chad muaj ib tug ob peb cheeb tsam: suab puam tsam nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb, ib tug pob txha qhuav Sahelian siv nyob rau hauv lub sab hauv thiab ib tug progressively siav Sudanian Savanna tsam nyob rau hauv sab qab teb. Lake Chad, tom qab uas lub teb chaws yog muaj npe, yog lub biggest wetland nyob rau hauv Chad thiab lub thib ob-loj tshaj nyob rau hauv teb chaws Africa. Peev N'Djamena yog lub biggest nroog. Chad tus tsim nyog dialects yog Arabic thiab Fabkis. Chad yog lub tsev mus rau ntau tshaj 200 yus haiv neeg thiab phonetic gatherings. Qhov tseem mainstream cai dab qhuas ntawm Chad yog Islam (ntawm 55%), trailed los ntawm Christianity (ntawm 40%).

Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad

Pib nyob rau hauv lub xya txhiab xyoo BC, tib neeg populaces tsiv mus rau hauv lub Chadian tais nyob rau hauv extraordinary xov tooj. Ua ntej lub finish ntawm lub thawj txhiab xyoo AD, ib tug mob ntawm lub xeev thiab realms tau sawv thiab poob nyob rau hauv Chad tus Sahelian sawb, txhua nyob ib ncig ntawm tswj lub trans-Saharan pauv cov hoob kawm uas tau mus los ntawm qhov chaw.

Fabkis vanquished sau los ntawm 1920 thiab koom nws raws li ib tug feature ntawm Fabkis Equatorial Africa. Nyob rau hauv 1960, Chad nrhiav kev ywj pheej nyob rau hauv lub koom haum saib xyuas ntawm François Tombalbaye. Ntxub ntawm nws le caag nyob rau hauv lub Muslim sab qaum teb lawm nyob rau hauv lub ncaws ntawm ib tug ruaj heev tsov rog nyob rau hauv 1965. Nyob rau hauv 1979 lub agitators vanquished lub capital thiab muab tso rau ib tug xaus mus rau sab qab teb txoj cai. Nyob rau hauv txhua rooj plaub, lub agitator tub ceev xwm rog ntawm lawv tus kheej kom txog thaum Hissène Habré vanquished nws adversaries. Nws twb ousted thusly nyob rau hauv 1990 los ntawm nws kev Idriss Déby. Txij li thaum 2003 lub Darfur thaum muaj xwm ceev nyob rau hauv Sudan tau spilled tshaj lub outskirt thiab destabilized lub teb chaws. Tsis li ntawm tam sim no, lub teb chaws thiab cov neeg sim kom haum ib tug lossis loj tus naj npawb ntawm Sudanese neeg raug ncaws tawm uas nyob rau hauv thiab ib ncig ntawm camps nyob rau hauv sab hnub tuaj Chad.

Thaum heev heev ideological pawg dynamic, tswj cov lus dag immovably nyob rau hauv lub ob txhais tes ntawm Thawj Tswj Hwm Déby thiab nws ideological pab pawg neeg, lub Patriotic Salvation Movement. Chad tshua quaj los kuamuag vim los ntawm nom tswv viciousness thiab repetitive endeavored overthrows d'état. Chad yog ib tug ntawm cov yam tsawg kawg muaj hmoo thiab feem ntau degenerate haiv neeg nyob rau hauv lub ntiaj chaw; feem ntau neeg nyob rau hauv neediness li subsistence herders thiab ranchers. Txij li thaum 2003 nyoos roj av tau muab rau hauv lub teb chaws tus tseem ceeb wellspring ntawm nqi nyiaj khwv tau los, supplanting lub customary paj rwb kev lag luam.

Keeb kwm

Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad

Nyob rau hauv lub xya txhiab xyoo BC, ib puag ncig tej yam kev mob nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb seem ntawm A Chadian cheeb tsam favored tib neeg hais sib haum, thiab lub chaw ces yuav tsum muaj khoom pej xeem increment. Tej zaum cov feem ntau tseem ceeb African archeological locales yog pom nyob rau hauv Chad, chiefly nyob rau hauv lub Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Thaj av; ib co hnub mus ntxov tshaj 2000 BC.

rau ntau tshaj 2,000 xyoo, lub Chadian Phiab tau tau muaj los ntawm Agrarian thiab nyob ruaj ruaj tus neeg. Lub cheeb tsam muab rau hauv ib tug hlws ris ntawm pej xeem tsim tau. Qhov tseem raws sijhawm ntawm cov no twb zoo kawg Sao, paub los ntawm ancient rarities thiab lub qhov ncauj nyiaj. Lub Sao tumbled mus rau lub Kanem faj tim teb chaws, tus thawj thiab ntev-nyiaj ib puas tsav ntawm lub realms uas tsim nyob rau hauv Chad tus Sahelian sawb ua ntej lub finish ntawm lub thawj txhiab xyoo AD. Ob tug sib txawv xeev nyob rau hauv lub cheeb tsam, Sultanate ntawm Bagirmiand Wadai faj tim teb chaws sawv nyob rau hauv lub thib kaum rau thiab thib kaum xya pua xyoo. Cov kev siv cov Kanem thiab nws cov successors depended rau kev tswj ntawm lub trans-Saharan pauv cov hoob kawm uas tau mus los ntawm lub cheeb tsam. cov xeev, thaum twg tus nqi implicitly Muslim, yeej tsis ncav us txog tawm lawv tswj mus rau yav qab teb Prairies tab sis mus tua rau qhev. Nyob rau hauv Kanem, txog 33% ntawm lub pej xeem ua qhev.

Fabkis pilgrim txoj kev loj hlob sim hawm caij nyoog lub tsim ntawm lub tub rog ncig ntawm lub teb chaws thiab lub Protectorates nyob rau hauv Chad 1900. los ntawm 1920, Fabkis tau qhia tau tseeb tag nrho tswj ntawm lub xeev thiab fused nws raws li ib tug feature ntawm Fabkis Equatorial Africa. Fabkis txoj ntsiab cai nyob rau hauv Chad twb portrayed los ntawm ib tug nonappearance ntawm le caag los losis tswvyim dabtsi ua ke rau sau thiab tsaug zog Modernization piv nrog rau lwm cov Fabkis settlements.

Fabkis yeej tseem zoo pom lub xeev raws li ib tug sob wellspring ntawm untrained ua hauj lwm thiab crude paj rwb; Fabkis hais loj loj scale paj rwb tiam nyob rau hauv 1929. Lub pilgrim lub koom haum nyob rau hauv Chad yog fundamentally understaffed thiab yuav tsum tau mus nyob ntawm seb lub seem ntawm lub Fabkis ntau thawj coj. Cia li lub Sara ntawm sab qab teb twb sawv cev txaus; Fabkis yua nyob rau hauv lub Islamic sab qaum teb thiab sab hnub tuaj yog ostensible. Cov qhia lub moj khaum twb tus los ntawm no disregard.

Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad

Tom qab lub ntiaj teb no ua tsov ua rog II, Fabkis conceded Chad tus txheej xwm ntawm lub txawv teb chaws cheeb tsam thiab nws cov neeg lub cib fim xaiv delegates mus rau lub teb chaws los ua ke thiab ib tug Chadian sib sau ua ke. Qhov loj tshaj ideological pab pawg neeg yog tus Chadian Progressive tog (ppt), situated nyob rau hauv lub yav qab teb feem ntawm lub xeev. Chad twb conceded ywj siab rau 11 Lub yim hli ntuj 1960 nrog lub ppt lub pioneer, Sarah François Tombalbaye, raws li nws cov thawj tus thawj tswj hwm.

Tom qab ob lub xyoos, Tombalbaye txwv tsis pub kuj pab pawg thiab los ua tau ib tug ib-tog lub moj khaum. Tombalbaye lub dictatorial txheem thiab tsis tub kom zoo fumble exacerbated ntawm haiv neeg pressures. Nyob rau hauv 1965, Muslims nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb, tsav los ntawm lub National Liberation Front ntawm Chad (FROLINAT), pib ib qho kev tsov kev rog. Tombalbaye twb ousted thiab tua nyob rau hauv 1975, Txawm li cas los, lub rebellion proceeded. Nyob rau hauv 1979 lub radical pawg tsav los ntawm Hissène Habré coj lub capital, thiab tag nrho cov focal tshwj xeeb nyob rau hauv lub teb chaws ib sij poob. Nruab pawg, heev heev los ntawm sab qaum teb lub insubordination, tiv thaiv rau lub hwj chim.

Lub deterioration ntawm Chad tshwm sim los rau lub neej puas Fabkis tus teeb meem no nyob rau hauv lub teb chaws. Libya tsiv mus rau sau lub hwj chim lub tshuab nqus tsev thiab twb tuaj txuam nrog Chad lub siab tsov rog. Libya txoj kev tiav nyob rau hauv khaum nyob rau hauv 1987; lub thawj tswj hwm Fabkis upheld, Hissène Habré, evoked ib tug unified cov tshuaj tiv thaiv los ntawm Chadians ntawm ib tug tsi tsis cai thiab tsis txaus lub Libyan armed quab yuam tawm Chadian av.

Habré merged nws kev siab phem los ntawm ib tug haib lub moj khaum uas depended rau ntawm debasement thiab kev ntxub ntxaug nrog ib tug loj tus naj npawb ntawm cov neeg soj ntsuam kom tau tua nyob rau hauv nws cov txheej txheem. Cov thawj tswj hwm txhawb nws tus kheej heev Toubou haiv neeg sib sau ua ke thiab tsim txom nws yav tas los cov neeg koom tes, lub Zaghawa. nws lub tuam, Idriss Déby, toppled nws nyob rau hauv 1990. Rau siab tsom arraign Habré sim hawm caij nyoog nws tej kab ke hauv lub tsev capture nyob rau hauv Senegal nyob rau hauv 2005; nyob rau hauv 2013, Habré twb officially liam ua tsov ua rog ua yuam kev xa thaum lub sij hawm nws txheem. Nyob rau hauv Tej zaum 2016, nws twb tshwm sim tsim kom tsum muab ntawm tib neeg txoj cai mishandles, xws li ua phem, kev sib deev kev ua qhev, thiab thov lub slaughtering ntawm 40,000 cov tib neeg thiab rau txim rau lub neej nyob rau hauv lub tsev kaw neeg.

Culture

Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad

Nyob rau account ntawm nws zoo kawg assortment ntawm cov neeg pab pawg thiab dialects, Chad muaj ib tug nplua nuj kev legacy. Lub Chadian tsoom fwv tau zoo tshaj Chadian kab lis kev cai thiab lub teb chaws kev lis kev cai los ntawm qhib lub Chad National tsev cia puav pheej thiab lub Chad Cultural Center. Rau lub teb chaws hnub caiv yog saib li qhia siv kuj, thiab portable hnub caiv teeb Christian nyiaj so koobtsheej ntawm Easter Monday thiab cov Muslim hnub caiv ntawm Eid ul-Fitr, Eid ul-Adha, thiab Eid Milad Nabi.

Lub suab paj nruag ntawm Chad sib txuas ntxiv ntawm ntau yam ceeb seev, piv txwv li, lub siab zoo, ib tug tsi ntawm nyo hau harp; Cov kev sib tham, ib tug ntev tin horn; thiab lub hu, ib tug stringed ntsuas uas utilizations calabashes li amplifiers. Txawv seev thiab lawv niam yog nce kev cob cog rua rau qhia tau meej heev haiv neeg gatherings: lub Sara lean mus rau whistles, balafon, harps, thiab Kojo drums; thiab lub Kanembu ntsaub lub yim pab ntawm drums nrog cov neeg ntawm woodwind li seev.

Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad

Millet yog lub staple kev loj hlob ntawm Chadian ua noj ua haus. Nws yog siv los mus ua kom chunks ntawm cov kua nplaum uas plunged nyob rau hauv cov kua ntsw. Nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb no tais yog lub npe hu raws li ib txwm; nyob rau hauv sab qab teb, raws li Them. Ntses yog zoo paub, uas yog feem ntau cov txheej txheem thiab muag yog li Palanga (hnub-qhuav thiab softly smoked Alestes thiab Hydrocynus) los yog raws li Banda (smoked loj loj ntses). Ib tug vajvoog yog ib tug paub zoo qab zib liab tshuaj yej sib cais los ntawm hibiscus nplooj. mixed refreshments, Txawm li cas los ploj lawm nyob rau hauv sab qaum teb, yog mainstream nyob rau hauv sab qab teb, qhov twg neeg haus dej haus pias lager, lub npe hu ua billi-billi thaum fermented los ntawm liab pias, thiab raws li costate thaum los ntawm dawb pias.

Lub suab paj nruag Rev Chari Jazz zoo li tus nyob rau hauv 1964 thiab pib Chad tus txiav ntug suab paj nruag scene. Tom qab ntawd, progressively nto moo gatherings, piv txwv li, African Suab paj nruag thiab International Challah endeavored muab innovation thiab convention. Nto moo gatherings, piv txwv li, Tibesti tau clung cuam sai rau lawv legacy los ntawm zaj lus piv rau xais, ib tug pa style ntawm cov suab paj nruag los ntawm yav qab teb Chad. Cov pejxeem ntawm Chad tau feem ntau ntxub tam sim no-hnub music. Nyob rau hauv txhua rooj plaub, nyob rau hauv 1995 ntau mas intrigue tau tsim thiab txhawb kom cov ncig ntawm CDs thiab suab tapes xws li Chadian tshwj xeeb. Tub sab tub nyiag thiab ib tug tsis tuaj kawm ntawv ntawm tsim nyog kev nyab xeeb rau craftsmen cov cai nyob twj ywm teeb meem los pab cov kev txhim kho ntawm lub Chadian music lag luam.

Raws li nyob rau hauv lwm yam Sahelian haiv neeg, sau ntawv nyob rau hauv Chad tau pom ib tug nyiaj txiag, kev nom kev tswv thiab otherworldly qhuav rau lub caij uas tau los nws zoo tshaj plaws-paub neeg sau xov xwm. Chadian sau ntawv tau raug yuam kom compose los ntawm yuam kev los yog exile raws li txoj cai thiab tau tsim kev sau ntawv txiav txim los ntawm cov ntsiab lus ntawm nom tswv mistreatment thiab chronicled tham. Txij li thaum 1962, 20 Chadian sau ntawv tau khaws cia nyob rau hauv kov nrog rau qhov chaw nyob rau hauv lub chav 60 tej hauj lwm ntawm cov ntawv tseeb. Ntawm cov feem ntau universally prestigious scholars yog Yauxej Brahim Seïd, Baba Moustapha, Antoine Bangui, thiab Koulsy Lamko. Nyob rau hauv 2003 Chad tus tib tug scholarly pundit, Ahmat Taboye faib nws Anthologie de la littérature tchadienne mus rau nam cov ntaub ntawv ntawm Chad tus sau ntawv universally thiab cov hluas thiab pab kom txawm peem rau Chad tau qhaj ntawv ntawm faib tsev thiab tshwj xeeb cov qauv.

Lub advancement ntawm lub Chadian zaj duab xis kev lag luam twb hampered los ntawm cov kev puas tsuaj ntawm ntau tsov rog thiab los ntawm cov uas tsis muaj films, uas muaj ib tug nyob rau hauv tag nrho lub teb chaws. Lub hom Chadian tivthaiv zaj duab xis, lub docudrama lawm Africa, tau ua nyob rau hauv 1999 los ntawm Mahamat Saleh Haroun. Nws tom qab zaj duab xis Abouna twb lug qhuas, thiab nws Daratt yeej cov neeg pej xeem Tshwj xeeb txim nqi zog nyob rau 63rd Venice International zaj duab xis Success. Cov 2010 caij movie A Screaming txiv neej yeej cov neeg mloog nqi zog ntawm lub 2010 Cannes zaj duab xis Success, ua Haroun thawj Chadian thawj yuav nkag mus rau, cia li raws li ib tug yeej, ib tug yawm nyob rau hauv lub siv Cannes rivalry. Issa Serge Coelo hauj lwm ua ke Chad tus ob tug sib txawv tsos, Daresalam thiab DP75: Tartina City.

Independence Day of Chad
Independence Day of Chad

Football yog Chad lub feem ntau mas kev ua si. Lub teb chaws lub teb chaws pab pawg neeg yog ntsoov caum thaum lub sij hawm universal rivalries thiab Chadian footballers tau ua si rau Fabkis pawg. B-pob thiab dawb-daim ntawv wrestling yog feem ntau tau rov qhia dua, kawg nyob rau hauv ib tug qauv nyob rau lub wrestlers muab tso rau hauv cov pa zeej stows tam sim ntawd thiab kis rau lawv tus kheej nrog residue.

Déby endeavored kom haum raws li cov radical gatherings thiab reintroduced multiparty PatientsÕ teeb meem. Chadians tseem hais ntxiv lwm cov kevcai tswj los ntawm kev xaiv, thiab nyob rau hauv 1996, Déby zoo yeej ib focused thawj tswj haiv neeg. Nws yeej ib tug thib ob lub sij hawm tsib xyoos tom qab qhov tseeb. Roj siv tsis raws cai pib nyob rau hauv Chad nyob rau hauv 2003, nqa nrog nws tso siab rau hais tias Chad yuav thaum kawg tau ib tug ob peb lub sij hawm ntawm kev sib raug zoo thiab flourishing. es, lub puab tsis sib haum intensified, thiab ib qho kev tsov kev rog tsoo tawm. Déby singularly hloov cov kevcai tswj rau ntiab tawm ob lub sij hawm tsis pub tshaj rau lub koom haum saib xyuas; no tsim ib tug scene ntawm cov ntau haiv neeg thiab kuj pab pawg.

Nyob rau hauv 2006 Déby yeej ib feem peb hais kom ua nyob rau hauv kev txiav txim siab hais tias tus kuj boycotted. Pawg lwm haiv tib viciousness nyob rau hauv sab hnub tuaj Chad muaj txhab; hauv lub tebchaws United Nations High Commissioner rau neeg tawg rog tau ceev faj hais tias ib tug decimation zoo li hais tias nyob rau hauv Darfur yuav tsis tau tshwm sim nyob rau hauv Chad. Nyob rau hauv 2006 thiab 2008 revolutionary powers endeavored coj lub capital los ntawm hwj chim, tsis tau nyob rau hauv ob txheej xwm fizzled. Ib tug nkag siab txog ntawm lub reclamation ntawm amicability cov Chad thiab Sudan, cim 15 Lub ib hlis ntuj 2010, denoted lub finish ntawm ib tug tsib-xyoo tsov rog. Tus kho nyob rau hauv kev sib raug zoo sim hawm caij nyoog lub Chadian radicals los ntawm Sudan rov qab los tsev, qhib ntawm lub outskirt nruab nrab ntawm ob haiv neeg nram qab no xya xyoo ntawm xaus, thiab lub koom haum ntawm ib tug sib koom hwj chim kom paub tseeb lub fringe. Nyob rau hauv Tej zaum 2013, kev ruaj ntseg powers nyob rau hauv Chad thwarted ib overthrow tiv thaiv Thawj Tswj Hwm Idriss Deby uas tau nyob rau hauv anticipation ntawm ib tug thaum.

Chad yog tam sim no ib tug ntawm lub ntsiab accomplices nyob rau hauv ib tug West African alliance nyob rau hauv lub sib ntaus sib tua tiv thaiv Boko Haram Chad tau zoo li no lawm incorporated rau cov Medal Lus tshaj tawm 9645, lub ncua rendition ntawm United States Thawj Tswj Hwm Donald Trump tus Executive Order 13780, uas confines zaj los ntawm nationals los ntawm 8 haiv neeg, xws li Chad, mus rau hauv lub US. Qhov no txav tau incensed lub Chadian tsoom fwv.

h3 txog posts:

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *