Dan neovisnosti Jamajke
The Colony of Jamaica picked up independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. In Jamaica, this date is commended as Independence Day, a national holiday.
The Caribbean island presently known as Jamaica was first settled by the Arawak and Taíno people groups, who started in neighboring South America. Genoan wayfarer Christopher Columbus found Jamaica in 1494 during his second voyage to the New World and asserted it for the Crown of Castile. As of now, more than two hundred towns existed in Jamaica, to a great extent situated on the south coast and led by caciques, ili “head of towns”.
The Spanish Empire started its official standard in Jamaica in 1509, with formal control of the island by conquistador Juan de Esquivel and his men. The Spaniards oppressed a significant number of the local individuals, exhausting and hurting them to the point that many died inside fifty years of European landing. In this way, the absence of indigenous work was settled by getting African slaves. Frustrated by the absence of gold on the island, the Spanish essentially utilized Jamaica as an army installation to supply colonizing endeavors in the territory in the Americas.
Following 146 years of Spanish principle, a huge gathering of British mariners and warriors arrived in the Kingston Harbor on 10 May 1655, during the Anglo-Spanish War. The English, who had focused on Jamaica after shocking destruction in a previous endeavor to take the island of Hispaniola, walked toward Villa de la Vega, the regulatory focal point of the island. Spanish powers gave up absent much battle on 11 May, a considerable lot of them escaping to Spanish Cuba or the northern part of the island.
English provincial purview over the island was immediately settled, with the recently renamed Spanish Town named the capital and home of the nearby House of Assembly, Jamaica’s legitimately chosen lawmaking body.
Uprisings and blending patriotism
Numerous previous Spanish slaves utilized the Anglo-Spanish war as an opportunity to free themselves and fled into the rocky and forested areas of the province to join the positions of enduring Tainos. As interracial marriage turned out to be amazingly common, the two racial gatherings experienced absorption. The got away slaves and their relatives, known as the Jamaican Maroons, were the wellspring of numerous unsettling influences in the province, assaulting manors and involving portions of the island’s inside. Imported African slaves would every now and again departure to Maroon region, known as Cockpit Country. Over the initial seventy-six years of British standard, engagements between Maroon warriors and the British Army became progressively normal, alongside uprisings by subjugated Blacks.
These contentions finished in 1728 when the First Maroon War started between the English and Maroons. To a great extent attributable to the effectively defendable, thick woodland of Cockpit Country, the British were ineffective in vanquishing the Maroons. Following dealings, the Maroons were conceded semi-independence inside their five towns, living under a British manager and their local head.
U 1795 strains between the Maroons of Cudjoe’s Town (Trelawny Town) and the British emitted into the Second Maroon War. The contention finished on a less positive term for Maroons, with a wicked stalemate ruling over the island for five months. Following the killings of estate proprietors and their families and the arrival of slaves by the Maroons, Major-General George Walpole wanted to trap the Maroons in Trelawney Town through the utilization of outfitted posts and hunting dogs, pushing them to acknowledge harmony terms toward the beginning of January 1796. Dreading British triumph, the Maroons acknowledged open dialogs in March. This deferral was utilized as an affection to have the vast lion’s share of the Trelawney Maroons expelled to Nova Scotia. They were later moved to Sierra Leone.
Bondage was abrogated in the British Empire by the Slavery Abolition Act in 1834. Following a time of extraordinary discussion, the local and African masses of Jamaica have conceded the privilege to cast a ballot; as the nineteenth century proceeded with the administration enabled some of them to hold open office. Regardless of these achievements, the white individuals from Jamaican pioneer society kept on holding genuine power.
During the principal half of the twentieth century, the most prominent Black pioneer was Marcus Garvey, a working chief and supporter of Black patriotism. Garvey, as opposed to upholding the independence of Jamaica and different states, elevated the Back-to-Africa development, which called for everybody of African plummet to come back to the countries of their progenitors. Garvey, without much of any result, begged the frontier government to improve living conditions for indigenous people groups in the West Indies. After coming back from worldwide ventures, he established the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League in 1914, which advanced social equality for blacks in Jamaica and abroad. Garvey served a five-year jail sentence at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary for swindling financial specialists in the association, following which he was ousted to Jamaica in November 1927, in the wake of having his sentence driven by President Calvin Coolidge. In the wake of coming back to his place of birth, Garvey attempted and neglected to be chosen into the open office. The last annihilation is credited to his adherents coming up short on the best possible voter capabilities. In spite of these inadequacies, Marcus Garvey is viewed as a national legend in present-day Jamaica.
Gathering legislative issues
The spike of patriot assessment in provincial Jamaica is basically credited to the British West Indian work agitation of 1934–39, which challenged the disparities of riches among local and British inhabitants of the British West Indies. Through these prominent suppositions Alexander Bustamante, a White local conceived moneylender, rose to political unmistakable quality and established the Bustamante Industrial Trade Union. Bustamante supported the self-sufficiency of the island and an increasingly equivalent level of influence. He caught the consideration and esteem of many dark Jamaican adolescents with his enthusiastic talks in the interest of Jamaican specialists. After a waterfront dissent in September 1940, he was captured by provincial experts and remained detained for most of the two years.
As Bustamante Industrial Trade Union picked up help, a cousin of Alexander Bustamante’s, Norman Manley, established the People’s National Party (PNP), a popularity based communist development which additionally pushed worker’s guilds. Despite the fact that Bustamante was initially an establishing individual from the PNP, he left his situation there in 1939, referring to its communist propensities as “excessively radical.”
In July 1943, Bustamante propelled the Jamaica Labor Party (JLP), which his adversaries ignored as only a political name of the Bustamante Industrial Trade Union. In the accompanying races, the JLP vanquished the PNP with a noteworthy lead over the last in the House of Representatives.
The next year, the JLP drove the government ordered another constitution that allowed widespread grown-up suffrage, fixing the high voter qualification benchmarks set up by the British. The new constitution, which was made authority on 20 studeni 1944, set up a bicameral assembly and sorted out an Executive Council made up of ten individuals from the lawmaking body and led by the recently made position of Premier, the head of government. A governing rules framework was additionally settled for this chamber.
Way to Independence, 1945–62
As World War II found some conclusions, the broad development of decolonization surpassed the world. English Government and neighborhood legislators started long progress of Jamaica from a crown province into a free state. The political scene was ruled by PNP and JLP, with the places of governing body exchanging hands between the two all through the 1950s.
After Norman Manley was chosen Chief Minister in 1955, he accelerated the procedure of decolonization by means of a few sacred alterations. These revisions took into account more noteworthy self-government and set up a bureau of pastors under the Prime Minister of Jamaica.
Under Manley, Jamaica entered the West Indies Federation, a political association of pioneer Caribbean islands that, in the event that it had to endure, would have joined ten British provincial domains into a solitary, autonomous state. Jamaica’s cooperation in the Federation was disagreeable, and the consequences of the 1961 West Indies submission held by Premier Manley solidified the province’s withdrawal from the association in 1962. The West Indies Federation crumbled soon thereafter following the takeoff of Trinidad and Tobago.
Dan neovisnosti Jamajke
In the races of 1962, the JLP crushed the PNP, bringing about the rising of Alexander Bustamante to the prevalence in April of that year. On 19 July 1962, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the Jamaica Independence Act, giving independence starting on 6 August with The Queen as Head of State. On that day, the Union Jack was ritualistically brought down and supplanted by the Jamaican banner all through the nation. Princess Margaret opened the main session of the Parliament of Jamaica for the benefit of The Queen. The principal Jamaica Independence Festival was held.
Bustamante turned into the main Prime Minister of Jamaica and joined the Commonwealth of Nations, an association of ex-British regions. Jamaica keeps on being a Commonwealth domain, with the British ruler, Elizabeth II, staying as Queen of Jamaica and head of state.
Jamaica went through its initial ten years of independence under traditionalist governments, with its economy experiencing ceaseless development. Be that as it may, as it had been all through quite a bit of its history, free Jamaica was tormented by issues of class imbalance. After the worldwide economy experienced decay, the radical PNP came back to control after the 1972 decisions. Questionable monetary conditions pained the nation well into the 1980s.
Michael Manley, the child of Norman Manley, who drove what was to a great extent the resistance all through the advancement of autonomous Jamaica, proceeded to turn into the fourth Prime Minister of Jamaica and kept up the People’s National Party’s status as one of two noteworthy political groups of the nation.
While independence is generally celebrated inside Jamaican culture, it has turned into a subject of discussion. U 2011, an overview demonstrated that roughly 60% of Jamaicans “figure the nation would be in an ideal situation today in the event that it was still under British standard”, referring to long periods of social and monetary blunder in the nation.
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